passive structural barriers such as: attack hardened walls; active, roving
guard patrols with small arms; or some combination.
normally involves a security guard response force, but could involve some
form of active defensive hardware.
Integrated Functional Performance.
All of the above system
elements are equally important and must operate in an integrated manner.
None can be eliminated or compromised if an effective security system is to
be achieved. Detection is important, since any resistance and delay offered
by a barrier can eventually be penetrated without detection. Moreover, the
delay must be sufficient to allow time after detection for threat assessment
and guard force response. A simple graphical method of illustrating the
timely interplay of these four basic elements, particularly the role of
barriers in delaying the threat, is shown in Figure 5. At some point in
time, labeled T sub o in Figure 5, an attack or unauthorized action by an
adversary begins. The upper line in Figure 5 reflects the actions and time
required for the intruder to complete his goal including the delay caused by
the barriers associated with the security system. At time T sub o, a sensor
is triggered which initiates the active protection system elements.
Commencing at time T sub o, a time race begins between the adversary and the
response elements. The protection system objective is to ensure that the
sensor alarm is quickly and correctly assessed and that sufficient response
forces are alerted and arrive at the proper location in time to prevent the
adversary from accomplishing his goal. The role of barriers is to increase
the intruder time after the detection system sensor is triggered. This
increase in time is accomplished by introducing sufficient barriers along all
possible adversary paths to provide the needed delay for the response forces
to arrive and react.
Deterrence Associated with a Security System. All security systems
offer some level of deterrence which depends on the level of dedication and
sophistication of the intruder and the relative value and/or criticality of
the assets at risk. Casual thefts of opportunity against noncritical assets
may be deterred by nominal investments in such things as alarm systems or
bars on the windows of a facility. On the other hand, the integrated
real-time security system described above may be required to deter dedicated
and sophisticated intruders intent on stealing or destroying critical assets.
Examples of deterrent security measures include: (1) visible guard forces
with rapid response or frequent patrol intervals, (2) high traffic densities
in or near a structure to increase the perceived likelihood of detection, (3)
an inventory control system that is updated frequently to deter insider
theft, and (4) lighting systems to increase the perception of nighttime