Detection at the Building Surface. Guards or sensors may be
located on site at the building to detect a threat before penetrating a
barrier surface. As noted, for a barrier to be effective in delaying an
intruder, detection must occur before penetration of the barrier has
occurred. Surface sensor systems, such as vibration sensors, etc., are
usually more cost-effective than stationing guards. These IDS options are
addressed further in par. 5.3.4.
Detection Within Building Interiors. Guards or sensors for threat
detection may be located within the building. For example, intruder
detection may be limited to an area around the outside of a vault. The
deployment must ensure that the detection occurs before the vault is
penetrated. Interior IDS systems are also used to detect covert entry or
insider threats. Barrier surface sensors as well as volumetric sensors can
be used. These are described in par. 5.3.4.
Entry Control. Entry control is the security function whereby
personnel, vehicles, and material are identified and screened to discriminate
authorized from unauthorized personnel and vehicles, and to detect explosives
contraband, etc. Entry control also includes supervising the flow and
routing of traffic, both pedestrian and vehicular. Control is not limited to
the site boundary or main gate, but extends to all controlled areas of the
activity, e.g., parking areas, building entrances, and even interior rooms
and safes. Exterior site-related entry control options at gates, etc., are
addressed in par. 4.4, and building entry control-related options in par.
Threat Assessment. Threat assessment can be accomplished by roving
or depot guards dispatched to investigate an alarm, or directly by tower
guards along the site perimeter or guards or personnel located at the
building. Alternatively, a CCTV system may be used. Assessment may occur:
(1) along the perimeter fence line of the site, (2) the exterior of the
building, or (3) within the interior of the building. The first two options
are addressed in par. 4.6, and the third in par. 5.3.5.
Security Lighting. Security lighting provides lights during
periods of darkness or in areas of low visibility to aid threat detection,
assessment, and interdiction by guards or CCTV. Security lighting is
typically located along site or building perimeter boundaries and entry
points. Security lighting is addressed in par. 4.7.
Key Terms and Definitions
The following provides specific definitions for key
Delay Time. Delay time is the total time an intruder is prevented
from gaining access to a secured resource. Delay time includes the
penetration time provided by one or more structural barriers separating an
intruder from a secured resource, and the ingress time required for travel