Minimum Requirements. DoD 5200.8-R states that a DoD component or
installation develop, establish, and maintain policies and procedures to
control access to installations. These are summarized in par. 4.4.3.
Personnel Identity Verification Systems. The purpose of a
personnel identity verification system is to restrict access to only those
personnel who have received previous authorization. There are three generic
types of systems: manual systems, mechanical locks, and automatic electronic
locks. The following summarizes these systems. The reader is referred to
the sources identified in par. 18.104.22.168 for details.
Manual Systems. Manual systems frequently make use of a
security identification badge. The badge is an entry credential which
includes a photograph of the person wearing it. The individual keeps the
badge and wears it at all times within the facility. Such badges have only
low to medium effectiveness. For more control, one can institute a process
of "badge exchange." In this method, an individual receives a security
identification badge with a second badge retained within the security-
controlled area. When access is desired, the security personnel exchange the
duplicate badge for the individual's badge. When the individual leaves, the
exchange is reversed. This procedure makes counterfeiting difficult because
the intruder would have to gain access to the exchange badges. This is the
recommended procedure for personnel-based systems.
Mechanical Locks. Various mechanical locking equipment can be
used to control access without requiring the presence of security personnel.
a) Keyed locks. Keys are the most common and least
expensive way to open locked doors. They are also one of the least secure
ways since keys are easy to copy. A key lock system is most effective when:
(1) few keys are issued per door, (2) master keys are minimized, and (3) two
differently keyed locks are used on each door, thus requiring a two-man
b) Combination locks. Combination locks include a dial or
dials onto which an access code is entered activating the lock to open the
door. These are inexpensive and allow a high level of personnel throughput.
One advantage of access codes is that they cannot be lost and subsequently
found by unauthorized people unless written down. Their primary disadvantage
is how easily the access code can be passed to unauthorized people.
Automated Electronic Locks. Electronic locks are used to
control the admission of personnel into protected areas. Electronic locks,
however, cannot fulfill all the functions of a human sentry because they
monitor only a limited portion of the observables (visual, audible, etc.)
that can be observed by humans. The degree of access control afforded by
electronic locks varies with the type of device used. Some electronic locks
can only identify a code, which is either encoded on a card or badge carried