Quantcast Section 8: Bomb Blast Hardening

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Introduction.  This section summarizes the design approach for
hardening against bomb blast effects.  A brief summary of design approaches
for both new and existing construction is provided.  The intent is to
illustrate the basic standoff distance versus blast hardening tradeoff for
designing against such threats.  See the Navy Terrorist Vehicle Bomb
Survivability Manual and the Army Security Engineering Manual for details.
Design Threats
Stationary Bomb Threats.  Stationary bomb threats may consist of
either a bomb-ladened vehicle parked near perimeter fence lines or entry
point areas or dropped-off, concealed packages.  In these cases, the design
threat explosive level can range from 50 pounds (22.5 kg) of trinitrotoluene
(TNT) for the low-level threat up to 1,000 pounds (450 kg) for the high-level
threat as shown in Table 53.  In this regard, one operational requirement
focuses on the higher order threat requiring protection against detonation of
1,000 pounds (450 kg) net explosive weight from at least 400 feet (122 m);
however, it is also indicated that this is not absolute, but must be adapted
to site conditions.
Table 53
Stationary Bomb Threats
*  Threat
Explosive Level, *
lb (kg) of TNT
50 (22.5)
220 (100)
500 (225)
* Very High  *
1000 (450)
Moving Vehicle Bomb Threat. There are also four levels of moving
vehicle design threats ranging vehicle design threats ranging from
low to very high, as shown in Table 54.  Explosives range from 50 to 1,000
pounds (22.5 to 450 kg) of TNT.  Vehicle weights are 50 (22.5) 4,000 pounds
(1,800 kg) for automobiles and up to 10,000 pounds Medium 220 (100)
(4,500 kg) for trucks, with speeds varying from 15 to 50 mph (24 to 80 km/h).
In general, the basic tradeoff is to design vehicle barriers to stop such
threats at a standoff distance that is consistent with the hardness of the
building against blast effects.  Kinetic energy (KE) equivalents for the
vehicle can be computed using the expression:
KE(ft-lb)=0.033 W V.2-
W = vehicle weight in pounds
V = the vehicle velocity in miles per hour


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