Section 4. RUNWAYS
Design Criteria. This section contains design criteria for both fixed-
and rotary-wing aircraft runways, including procedures for orientation and for
runway length determination. In addition, criteria are provided for design of
the surfaces of the runway shoulders, overrun area, stabilized area, blast
protective pavement, and clear zone. See Table 2 for lateral runway clearance
The number of runways required at an airfield, and their geometry, are
determined from analysis of wind coverage, expected traffic density, aircraft
type, mission, local development planning, terrain evaluation, and other
Design Requirements. Design includes the layout, grading, and drainage
of the runway or runways, the dimensions and strength of the runway pavement
and shoulders, and the requirements of other areas such as the overrun and
intermediate area, blast protective pavement, and the clear zone.
Layout. Runway layout includes selection of runway system, orientation
of principal and crosswind runways, and the lateral clearances which are
220.127.116.11 Runway Orientation. The runway shall be aligned based on analysis of
the wind data, terrain, local development, operational procedures, and other
pertinent factors (see Section 2). Data for wind analysis may be obtained
through the Navy Oceanographic Office.
18.104.22.168 Runway Lateral Clearances. The minimum separation distance from the
runway centerline to the runway clearance line shall be 500 feet for Class A
runway; 1000 feet for Class B runway (runways at air stations established before
June 1981 may be 750 feet, see NAVFAC P-80.3), and to the taxiway centerline,
500 feet. The runway clearance line is the lateral limit of the primary surface
and the beginning of the transition surface (7:1 side slope) as shown in Figures
4, 5, and 6. For basic training outlying fields, propeller aircraft, the
minimum separation distance from the runway centerline to the runway clearance
line shall be 500 feet, and the transition surface slopes upward at 2:1 for T-34
aircraft and 7:1 for all others from the runway clearance line to an elevation
of 150 feet. Minimum distance between centerlines of parallel runways used for
simultaneous takeoffs or landings in the same direction shall be 1000 feet for
VFR and 4300 feet for IFR operations. See Table 2 for additional lateral
clearance criteria. Typical runway, taxiway, and primary surface transverse
sections are in Figure 6.
Compute length of runway as prescribed in NAVFAC P-80.
Corrections. The basic runway length, determined by aircraft
characteristics, shall be corrected for nonstandard conditions of altitude and
temperature and for runway gradient, if appropriate, and a safety factor shall
be used to account for indeterminate corrections.