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a) The effect that range construction and range operation will have
on endangered species of wildlife (if any) and on proper land use policies.
b) Preservation of important survey monuments in the area,
especially those of U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.
c) Common use of roads, messhalls, other training facilities
applicable to several ranges.,
d) Decontamination of unexploded ordnance and cleanup of inert
e) Target setup, maintenance, and repair.
Orientation. All firings shall be conducted in a direction away
from ammunition and gasoline storage and inhabited areas. Trajectories shall
not pass over an ammunition or gasoline storage area.  Orient the range so
that gunners will not be firing into rising or setting sun.
Terrain.  Firing into upward sloping land and land with natural
backstop of hills or mountains is recommended. Land with good natural
drainage and which is mostly barren of ignitable grass, timber, and underbrush
is preferable.  Firing platforms, access and range roads, and targets are to
be elevated above flood level.  The line of fire in rough terrain should be
perpendicular to high ground.  The line of fire on flat terrain should be free
of knolls, ridges, and trees which reduce visibility. Known distance ranges
should be as horizontal as possible.  Firing points may be below the target
provided the grade between the points and target does not exceed two percent.
Ricochet cannot be completely eliminated, but can be reduced by level terrain,
soft soil, and elimination of hard objects.  For heavy weapons, impact areas
must be clear of target debris and old projectiles.  Earth berms should be
used to the rear of target areas.  Earth berms may be used on sides of the
range to protect timber, game, recovery metal salvage, and possible reduction
of impact areas.
Roads used for setting and servicing targets in impact areas and for
maintenance of earth berm slopes may be graded pathways.  Roads in areas not
subject to disturbance such as vehicle parking area, projectile weapons firing
and maneuvering areas, and roadways behind firing line or out of range of
weapons, will be improved road of compacted subbase with compacted gravel
base, or compacted gravel or crushed stone on compacted cement or asphalt
stabilized sand, designed for anticipated vehicle weight and usage.  Layout
for tank trails and roads for other heavy tracked or lugged vehicles should be
planned to avoid damage to improved roadway surfaces.
Access and Range Roads. Provide access roads for transporting
personnel, supplies, and equipment to ranger and to service targets within
target areas.  Refer to NAVFAC DM-5.4, Pavements, and Army TM 5-822-2, General


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