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5.2.1.2  Secondary Credentials.  As noted previously, all card access badges
are susceptible to alteration, decoding, and duplication.  The degree to
which the technology is resistive to these threats is very important to the
integrity of the security system.  Controls placed on badge stock,
enrollment of cards into the system, and changes in authorization should be
well audited.  Secondary verification systems, which require either a code
to be entered on a keypad or physical data sampling in addition to a valid
card read are usually required for entry into very sensitive areas.  The
second verification is to minimize the adverse effects associated with
unreported lost or stolen cards.  Examples of secondary verifications are
physical characteristic photographic image matchup to files of personnel,
personal identification number (PIN), hand geometry, fingerprints,
handwriting, speech, weight, and other biometric systems.  Secondary
systems, with the exception of biometric systems, are less secure than coded
credentials.  This is due to the easily read identification media and the
wide latitude to accommodate variations due to environment, stress, and
other data entry errors which may deny access to authorized users.  A
personal identification number is the most commonly used secondary
verification system because of the relative ease in obtaining an accurate
specific data entry and the immunity of this data to environmental
influences.
5.2.1.3  General.  Most card access systems utilize either 2 1/8 by 3 3/8
inch or 2 3/8 by 3 1/4 inch credit card-sized credentials.  Some
technologies permit much larger cards, which may be used as identification,
to be worn and read easily using larger photographs and printing.
Characteristics of specific card technologies provide a mixture of pro and
con attributes which should be balanced to best effect for the activity or
facility.  The ability to decode, alter, or duplicate the badge, the
sensitivity of the coding to accidental alteration or erasure, the physical
attributes of size, thickness, stiffness and durability, the amount of coded
information, and requirements of manufacturer or user encoding can be either
assets or liabilities depending upon the activity or facility viewpoint.
Each of these features affect cost.
5.2.2  Badge Reader.  Information which has been encoded in the various
media represented by the badge technologies must be decoded or read, then
transmitted to a processor which grants or denies access based upon a
comparison of the encoded information with authorization files.  The encoded
information is usually set up in at least two segments.  The first segment,
a facility specific code group, is used to exclude those information sets
which do not belong to the facility.  The decision to pass the information
to the processor enrollment files is done at the controller.  The reader
devices depend upon the types of media presented.  The second set of
information is specific to the card holder and usually not duplicated within
the system.  Some systems using only facility code in the event of
communication breakdown are termed degraded mode operations systems and are
not recommended for higher security facilities.
5.2.2.1  Magnetic Stripe.  Magnetic stripe features the largest information
storage media capacity.  Readers are available for indoor and outdoor
application.  The low-energy readers require close tolerance or spring
loaded and gimbel mounted readheads to compensate for the faint signal
presence.  The
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