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p'

Compression reinforcement ratio
pb

Balanced reinforcement ratio
pt

Total reinforcement ratio
P

Design axial load, lb
Pb

Axial load at balanced condition, lb
Pc

Critical axial load causing buckling, lb
Po

Ultimate axial load for concentrically loaded column, lb
Pu

Ultimate load for biaxial bending, lb
Px

Ultimate axial load with bending about the xaxis only, lb
Py

Ultimate axial load with bending about the yaxis only, lb
r

Radius of gyration of column, in
ru

Ultimate unit resistance, lb/in
Ru

Total ultimate resistance, lb
s

Spacing of torsion reinforcement in a direction parallel to the
longitudinal reinforcement, in

Pitch of spiral, in
ss

Spacing of shear reinforcement in the direction parallel to the
longitudinal reinforcement, in
tm

Time to maximum deflection, ms
T

Duration of dynamic loading, ms
TN

Natural period of vibration, ms
Tu

Torsional moment at critical section, inlb
vc

Maximum shear capacity of an unreinforced web, psi
vtc 
Maximum torsion capacity of an unreinforced web, psi
vtu 
Nominal torsion stress in the direction of vu, psi
v(tu)H Nominal torsional stress in the horizontal direction, psi
V(tu)V Nominal torsional stress in the vertical direction, psi
vu

Nominal shear stress, psi
2.08127


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