Consensus and state and Federal specifications are evidence of the performance of
GGBF slag in cement and concrete. ASTM and AASHTO each have two specifications
applicable to use of GGBF slag: ASTM C 989, Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag for
Use in Concrete Mortars; ASTM C 595, Blended Hydraulic Cements; AASHTO M 302
Ground Granulated last Furnace Slag for Use in Concrete and Mortars; and AASHTO M
240, Blended Hydraulic Cements. In addition, there is an American Concrete Institute
Standard Practice, ACI 226.R1, Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag as a Cementitious
Constituent in Concrete.
FHWA commented that the Federal Lands Highway Division allows the use of both
Type IS and Type ISM blended cements. The States of Alabama, Connecticut, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, North Carolina, North
Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia also have adopted
specifications which allow the use of GGBF slag in one or, more applications.
c. Impact of government procurement. In the 1983 cement and concrete procurement
guideline, EPA noted that almost one-half of total U.S. cement consumption is in public
construction projects, many of which are funded with Federal funds, Factoring in usage of
cement and concrete containing coal fly ash and uses' for which recover& materials may be
inappropriate, the potential impact of designating GGBF slag still could be substantial.
In 40 CFR 247.12(c), EPA is adding GGBF slag to the existing designation of cement
and concrete containing coal fly ash. As discussed above, this designation does not require
procuring agencies to favor GGBF slag over coal fly ash. Rather, the addition of the GGBF
slag designation simply requires that procuring agencies consider cement and concrete
containing either recovered material (i.e., coal fly ash or GGBF slag). Which type of
cement or concrete a procuring agency purchases will depend on a number of factors,
including the performance requirements for the construction project, product availability,
competition, and product price.
In the CPG, the Agency proposed designating carpet (see 59 FR 18873, April 20,
1994). Broadloom carpet, meaning roll goods in 12-foot widths, for wall-to-wall installation,
generally is comprised of face fibers (usually made of nylon, polyester, wool, or
polypropylene) inserted into a primary backing, which is usually made of polypropylene
materials. The fiber is then locked or glued into place by a layer of latex adhesive; a
secondary backing made of polypropylene or jute fiber then is applied to provide stability.
Carpet squares or tiles are manufactured first as broadloom carpet; however, after inserting
the fiber into the primary backing, a sheet made of polypropylene or other material is added