and determined that, if EPA designated toner cartridges in the final CPG, the presence of the
voluntary procurement provision in 42 U.S.C. 6962(j) would only create contusion among
procuring agencies and product manufacturers.
d. Disposition of spent cartridges. Two commenters emphasized the importance of
Collecting and returning expended toner cartridges for remanufacturing/recycling purposes.
EPA agrees and encourages procuring agencies to collect their empty cartridges and
return them to vendors for remanufacturing/recycling purposes.
3. Rationale for Designation
EPA believes that toner cartridges satisfy the statutory criteria for selecting items for
a. Use of materials in solid waste. According to research conducted by BIS Strategic
Decisions, 27.75 million toner cartridges were produced for the U.S. market in 1993. Of
these cartridges, 71 percent were new cartridges and 29 percent were remanufactured
cartridges. Based on these data, the Agency is convinced that a significant number of
expended toner cartridges are diverted from the solid waste stream by toner cartridge
remanufacturing and recycling efforts and encourages government agencies to collect their
empty cartridges and return them to vendors for remanufacturing/recycling purposes.
b. Technically proven uses. Toner cartridges are commonly used by government
agencies and private businesses.
(i). Remanufactured toner cartridges. Toner cartridge remanufacturing, services are
available and increasing, in usage. Over the past few years, the number of vendors that offer
toner cartridge remanufacturing services has increased substantially. As of December 1994,
GSA's New Item Introductory Schedule for remanufactured toner cartridges listed 117
vendors. In addition, GSA has two vendors that provide remanufactured toner cartridges to
its supply program. Also, Federal Prison Industries remanufactures a broad line of toner
The performance of a remanufactured toner cartridge can vary based on the condition
of the cartridge and the process used to remanufacture it. Currently, there is no Federal
testing program for remanufactured toner cartridges; however, there are at least two
independent laboratories that have vendor cartridge quality testing and evaluation programs.
In addition, GSA has established procedures by which remanufacturers providing
remanufactured toner cartridges to its supply program are to disassemble, clean, replace parts
within, refill, and reassemble expended cartridges. Several states, including Wisconsin,
Connecticut, and Mississippi, also have performance requirements in their specifications for
remanufactured toner cartridges.