3.3.1 Approach Zone
The approach zone lies between the access control zone and the installation boundary. It is
the area all vehicles must transverse before reaching the actual checkpoint. The following
functions occur in the approach zone:
1. Reduce the speed of incoming vehicles to at or below the design speed of the ECF.
2. Perform sorting of traffic by vehicle type. An example would be sorting trucks or
visitors into the proper lane before reaching the inspection area or the checkpoint.
3. Provide adequate stacking distance for vehicles waiting for entry, especially during
times of peak demand, to insure minimal impact on traffic off the installation.
4. Provide the first opportunity to identify potential threat vehicles, including those
attempting entry through the outbound lanes of traffic.
Roadway layout and various traffic control devices such as signs, variable message systems,
signals, and lane control markings should be utilized to perform these functions. Drivers should
be notified of the upcoming access control point, the proper speed to travel, and proper lane
to utilize. The length of the approach zone will vary based on constraints such as availability
of land, distance required to perform traffic sorting, and space requirements associated with
creating additional lanes of traffic (1). The approach zone design should also consider
temporary traffic control measures, such as the placement of traffic barriers to constrain and
slow traffic, which are frequently specified in the installation AT Plan for higher FPCONs or as
RAMs at lower FPCONs.
3.3.2 Access Control Zone
The access control zone is the main controlling element of the ECF. This area includes the
gatehouse and traffic management equipment in support of the work of the security force. As
technology changes, it is important to provide flexibility in the design of the access control
zone to insure the infrastructure can support future demands of inspection and access control
The design of the access control zone should consider the requirements to process the following
types of vehicles:
POV of Authorized Personnel
Delivery vans, trucks, and buses
These vehicles in turn become one of the following types of traffic that must be
accommodated at the access control point:
Vehicles given access to the installation
Vehicles denied access to the installation (rejected traffic)
Vehicles denied access that attempt unauthorized entry (threat)
All vehicles departing the installation