80.1 Protective lighting planning. Protective lighting is an essential
element of an integrated physical security program. Its application at
various facilities depends upon local conditions and the nature of areas to
be protected. Each situation requires careful study to provide the
visibility that is practical for security duties such as verification of
access authorization credentials, prevention of illegal/unauthorized entry
into restricted areas, and inspection of unusual suspicious circumstances.
When protective lighting provisions arc impractical, additional security
measures such as increased security patrols, additional sentries, or an alarm
system will be necessary. To be effective, protective lighting should
discourage or deter attempts at unauthorized entry by intruders and make
detection certain if such entry is attempted. Proper illumination may lead a
potential intruder to believe detection by security forces is inevitable.
80.2 Protective lighting design. In designing a protective lighting system,
specific consideration should be given to the physical layout of the
facility, other buildings of the installation, terrain, atmospheric and
climatic conditions, and the additional protective requirements over and
above those measures already in existence. All isolated limited and
exclusion areas that are external to a large installation must have
protective lighting on a permanent basis at perimeter and access control
points. The lighting must be positioned to prevent glare that may impair the
vision of security personnel and to avoid silhouetting or highlighting the
guards. Protective lighting systems should be designed so that failure of
one or more lights will not significantly reduce security effectiveness.
High brightness contrast between intruder and background is another
consideration. Predominately dark, dirty surfaces or camouflage-type painted
surfaces need more light to produce the same brightness around buildings than
do clean concrete, light brick, and grass. When the same amount of light
falls on an object and its background, the observer must depend on contrasts
in the amount of light reflected. The observer can more easily distinguish
poor contrasts by increasing the level of illumination. When the intruder is
darker than his background, the observer primarily sees the outline or
silhouette. Intruders in this situation may be foiled if light-colored
finishes on the lower parts of buildings and structures are used. Reflective
stripes on building walls are also effective because they provide
recognizable breaks in outlines or silhouettes. Two basic methods (or a
combination of both) may be used to provide practical and effective
A second method is to light the area and structures within the boundaries of
the restricted area. Facility engineers should consult physical security
specialists to help determine the appropriate type and the degree of
protective lighting system(s) that best serves the security needs of the
facility being designed or reworked.
90. Intrusion detection system (IDS). An IDS is an integral element of an
in-depth physical security program and plays a vital role in the protection
of classified facilities, equipment, and material. For an area to be secure,
an IDS must focus upon detecting unauthorized individuals at the entry point
(gate, door, fence, etc.), area (building, field, room), or at a specific
object (vault, file, safe). Remember, when selecting an IDS for a facility,
any IDS is useless unless it is backed up by a prompt security force response
when an IDS alarm is activated.
90.1 Purpose of IDS.
An IDS is used for one or more of the following
a. Economy. An IDS permits more efficient and economical use of manpower.
It cases the manpower intensiveness associated with security forces.