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MIL-HDBK-419A
1.11.2.1.1 Training. Installers and operators of communications equipment should be formally trained in the
installation and maintenance concepts of grounding systems. This training should include instructions in the
various types of grounding techniques and configurations, such as those listed:
Typical Training Requirements
Grounding Techniques -
Resistance Measuring Methods
Reduction in Ground Resistance
Initial Establishment of Grounding Systems as a Function of Terrain
Grounding Configurations - Earth Electrode Subsystem (Single Ground Rod)
Earth Electrode Subsystem (Multiple Ground Rods)
Equipotential Plane
Antenna Counterpoises
Radial Single-Point Ground Networks
Ground Systems on a Nodal Basis
1.11.2.1.2  Testing. Ground resistance measurements should be made upon installation of a ground system and
at periodic intervals should the system remain in place for any length of time, or at any time extraneous noise
occurs in the system. An earth resistance measurement set should be authorized to each unit to perform these
resistance measurements. The earth resistance goal of 10 ohms or less should be obtained for stand-alone and
collocated equipment. Where collocated equipment systems are separated by greater than 8 meters (26.5 feet),
their difference in resistance-to-ground measurements in tactical situations may be higher. If noise or other
undesirable effects are produced as a result of these higher ground resistance differences, the earth electrode
subsystems of each facility should be interconnected using two bare 1/0 AWG copper cables or chemical
treatment for soil enhancement should be applied to the subsystem having the higher resistance.
1.11.2.2 Stand-Alone Equipment.
1.11.2.2.1  General Description. The stand-alone equipments of the military mobile system are generally self-
contained transportable field equipment. These equipments interface with other equipment over WF-16 wire or
coaxial cables. Stand-alone equipments generally are totally self-contained with integral power supplies and
grounding system. The primary emphasis of low resistance grounds for stand-alone equipments is to assure
personnel safety and lightning protection. Lightning protection is needed to protect operating personnel from
the effects of lightning that may impinge upon interfacing cable or from direct strike on the shelter.
1.11.2.2.2  Grounding Procedure. Means of providing lightning and safety protection on stand-alone equipments
include low resistance grounds and installation of surge arresters on interfacing cabling.
1.11.2.2.2.1  Low Resistance Grounds. Obtaining and maintaining low resistance grounds are the responsibility
of user personnel. To provide adequate lightning protection the resistance to ground should be less than
10 ohms. Realizable grounding alternatives for stand-alone equipments are:
1.11.2.2.2.1.1 Existing Facilities. If available, operating personnel should connect an interconnecting ground
cable to an existing low resistance facility as specified in 1.11.1.3.1.
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