Quantcast Chapter 11. Hazardous Substances

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TM 5-683/NAVFAC MO-116/AFJMAN 32-1083
ity. Resistance to degradation by heat, oxidation
11-1. Environmental protection.
etc. is very desirable. But it is the long life feature,
This chapter concentrates on the Environment
coupled with the fact that PCB is bioaccumulative
Protection Agency (EPA) identification of hazard-
and concentrates in the fat tissue of fish and other
ous substances. If a hazardous substance is re-
animals, including man, that has led to its identi-
leased into the environment in a reportable quan-
fication as an environmental problem. Handling,
tity the facility Hazardous Waste Coordinator
storage and disposal of PCBs and products con-
must be notified. "Release" by definition involves
taining PCBs are therefore regulated by the EPA
any spilling, leaking, pumping, emitting, empty-
and the Site Hazardous Waste Coordinator. All
ing, discharging, injecting, escaping, dumping or
questions pertaining to hazardous wastes should
disposing of a hazardous substance. A "reportable
be directed to that office. Basic concepts have been
quantity'' varies by weight for each hazardous sub
presented to acquaint facilities personnel with the
stance. Refer to Section 311 of the Clean Water Act
hazards of PCBs. Physical problems which maybe
(CWA) for established quantities for hazardous
related to PCB exposure include an acne-like skin
substances. For hazardous substances not listed,
eruption associated with baking, soldering or heat
one (1) pound or more of that substance released
transfer applications; changes in skin pigmentat-
to the environment is reportable until otherwise
ion; peripheral numbness; digestive upsets; head-
specified by the EPA. Failure to comply with noti-
aches; and fatigue. PCB has also been found by
fication requirements may result in civil and
the Occupational Safety and Health Administra-
criminal penalties. In all cases, handling and dis-
tion (OSHA) to include tumors in experimental
posing of any hazardous substance must be di-
animals after repeated oral ingestion and con-
rected by the Site Hazardous Waste Coordinator.
cludes that PCBs are a potential carcinogen to
Hazardous substances include:
humans. Unless laboratory tests confirm the pres-
a. Wastes listed in the Resource Conservation and
ence of less than 50 parts per million (PPM) of
Recovery Act (RCRA).
PCB, then all transformers or capacitors filled
b. Air pollutants listed in the Clean Air Act
with petroleum-based dielectric are assumed to be
(CAA)-Section 112.
PCB-contaminated for EPA regulatory purposes.
c. Substances and priority pollutants listed in the
Sample testing an oil sample involves a compre-
Clean Water Act (CWA)-Sections 311 and 307a.
hensive test, a gas-in-oil test and a presence of
d. Chemical substances designated under the
PCBstest. The gas-in-oil analysis determined the
Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)-Section 7.
concentrations of gases absorbed in the oil sample.
e. Other substances as designated by the EPA
The presence of PCBs analysis determines the
11-2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS).
concentration of PCBs in the oil sample. Oil clas-
PCBs belong to a broad family of organic chemi-
sifications and concentrations are: non-PCB--less
cals known as chlorinated hydrocarbons. Virtually
than 50 PPM; PCB contaminated-greater then
all PCBs have been synthetically manufactured.
50 PPM but less than 500 PPM and, PCB-greater
Their use has primarily been in transformers and
than 500 PPM. The comprehensive test includes
capacitors but they are also found in fluorescent
the following analyses:
ballasts. PCBs are no longer intentionally manu-
a. Dielectric strength.
factured in the United States although inadver-
b. Color.
tent production of PCB byproducts can occur when
c. Acidity.
chlorine, organic carbon, elevated temperatures or
d. Water content.
catalysts are present together in a process. The
e. Viscosity.
Monsanto Corporation was the principal domestic
f. Specific gravity.
manufacturer of PCBsand marketed the product
g. Pour point.
under the trade name, Aroclor. However, other
h. Interracial tension.
companies who used PCBs in the manufacture of
i. Power factor.
transformers, capacitors, etc. used other trade
j. Corrosive sulphur.
names (table 11-1). From an electrical standpoint,
k. Visual examination.
one desirable feature of PCB is its chemical stabil-
l. Particle count.


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