be used in conjunction with the ring markers to aid crane barge
movement along proper lines of bearing as it lays the anchor chain
Figure 2-2. Typical Center, Ring, and Range Marker Buoy Configuration
Other Positioning Equipment. Correct positioning of marker buoys is
determined by the use of transits, theodolites, electronic distance
measuring (EDM) devices, and other similar equipment. Marker buoy
locations should be referenced to established benchmarks or fixed
landmarks such as beacons, towers, smokestacks, or corners of buildings.
If the mooring is to be installed close to a pier, a dolphin, or a fixed
structure, the correct position of the markers can be determined by direct
measurement using a measured line or similar aid. Marker buoys may be
placed from a small boat or any other suitable vessel. Marker buoys
should be checked before and during mooring installation to verify that
they have remained in their correct positions.