18.104.22.168 Spider Plate. This is a steel pIate or casting, triangular in shape, that has
three or more holes for joining several chains together (see Figure B-21).
22.214.171.124 Chain Equalizer. The equalizer is a half-rounded type of fitting (similar
to a nonmovable pulley) with wide jaws through which an anchor chain
subassembly is passed and then connected to two separate anchors.
When tension is applied to the mooring, the chain has free movement to
slide through the equalizer until the loads are equal in both subassembly
legs (see Figure B-22).
1.4 ANCHORS. Fleet moorings are held in place by some type of bottom anchoring
system. The types described below are normally used for this purpose.
1.4.1 NAVY STANDARD STOCKLESS. These anchors are used extensively in fleet
moorings primarily because of their availability. However, they are prone to rotate
after reaching their maximum holding power, which results in a pullout. To reduce
the possibility of rotation, stabilizers are often welded to the anchor. The older
type stabilizers consisted of a 1-inch wall-thickness pipe of variable diameters. A
newly designed l/2-inch wall-thickness square tube (NAVFAC Drawing No. 1404456)
will be used for future stabilizers (see Figure B-23). Navy standard stockless anchors
range in size from 500 to 40,000 pounds.
1.4.2 NAVFAC STATO. These anchors were developed for the Naval Facilities
Engineering Command as permanent mooring-type anchors. The stabilizers have
been designed and tested for maximum stability (see Figure B-23). The angle
between the shank and the flukes is adjustable in the field to a 34-degree angle or a
50-degree angle for operations in sand and mud, respectively. STATO anchors
range in size from 200 to 15,000 pounds.
1.4.3 NAVMOOR ANCHOR. This is a prototype anchor being designed for primary
use in fleet moorings vice ships. Its holding power is considerably higher than other