Quantcast Chapter 2. Inspection and Tests

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TM 5-684/NAVFAC MO-200/AFJMAN 32-1082
2-1. Determining equipment condition.
available for future reference. Records should be
maintained to indicate what test data are required
The ability of equipment to perform its function, or
and what means are to be used to provide this data.
to continue its function for its normal life cycle,
Nondestructive maintenance tests can cause insula-
must be determined if the distribution system is to
tion breakdown with no warning. A plan for coping
operate dependably and economically. The condition
with this possibility should be included in the test
of equipment can be determined by two methods:
inspection and tests. Such things as broken insula-
tors or oil leaks can easily be determined by inspec-
a. Qualifications of test operators. If a testing pro-
tions, but other details such as the condition of
gram is to provide meaningful information relative
transformer oil or a trip setting for a circuit breaker
to the condition of the equipment under test, then
can be determined only by tests. The scope of in-
the person evaluating the test data must be assured
spection and tests is dependent on the type and
that the test was conducted in a proper manner and
complexity of the equipment, and the results de-
that all of the conditions that could affect the evalu-
sired. Inspections are normally visual, but hearing,
ation of the tests were considered and any pertinent
touching, and smelling can also indicate problem
factors reported. The test operator, therefore, must
areas. Tests can be electrical, physical, or chemical,
be thoroughly familiar with the test equipment
or combinations of these. The selection of the test to
used in the type of test to be performed, and also
be made may be at least partially determined by the
sufficiently experienced to be able to detect any
availability of test equipment and of personnel ca-
equipment abnormalities or questionable data dur-
pable of using it.
ing the performance of the tests.
2-2. Reasons for inspections and tests.
b. Test equipment. It is important to have the
proper equipment for performing the required tests
Inspections and tests are performed for several rea-
in any test program. In general, any test equipment
used for the calibration of other equipment should
a. Preventive maintenance. This includes routine
have an accuracy at least twice the accuracy of the
testing of operating equipment and periodic testing
equipment under test. The test equipment should
of nonoperating components to anticipate and cor-
be maintained in good condition and should be used
rect possible equipment failure before it occurs.
only by qualified test operators. All test equipment
b. Maintenance proof testing. This is testing to
should be calibrated at regular intervals to ensure
ensure that maintenance/repair was done properly.
the validity of the data obtained. In order to get
This should be done when maintenance and/or re-
valid test results, it may be necessary to regulate
pair are complete, and to show whether the equip-
the power input to the test equipment for proper
ment is operable and properly connected.
waveform and frequency and to eliminate voltage
2-3. Associated test guidance and records.
c. Use of forms. To provide optimum benefits,
Tests are ordinarily used in the field to determine
the condition of various elements of an electrical
record all testing data and maintenance actions on
power-distribution system. The data obtained in
test circuit diagrams and forms that are complete
these tests provide information that is used to de-
and comprehensive. Recording both test data and
termine whether any corrective maintenance or re-
maintenance information on the same form is rec-
placement is necessary or desirable. The ability of
ommended. A storage and filing system should be
the element to continue to perform its design func-
set up for these forms that will provide efficient and
tion adequately can be ascertained. Also the gradual
rapid retrieval of information regarding previous
deterioration of the equipment over its service life
testing and maintenance on a piece of equipment. A
well-designed form will also serve as a guide or a
can be charted. Records must include factory test
checklist of inspection requirements. Samples of
data provided with shop drawing submittals, accep-
tance testing data, and each routine maintenance
typical forms that can be used are included in NFPA
test, so that the history of the equipment may be
70B, appendix G.


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