TM 5-684/NAVFAC MO-200/AFJMAN 32-1082
Section VI-CHECKS AND TROUBLESHOOTING
14-l 8. Inspections of batteries.
(5) Provide an equalizing charge if cells are
Inspections should be made under normal condi-
(6) Analyze records and report any recommen-
tions and performed on a regularly scheduled basis.
All inspections should be made under normal float
c. Annually. In addition to the quarterly items,
conditions. Specific gravity readings are not mean-
provide recorded checks of the following data.
ingful during charge or following the addition of
water. Readings should be taken in accordance with
(1) Provide a detailed visual inspection of each
the manufacturer's instructions. Refer to the appen-
dices of ANSI/IEEE 450 and ANSI/IEEE 1106 for
(2) Check all bolt connections in accordance
with ANSI/IEEE 450 or ANSI/IEEE 1106 to see if
a. Monthly. Provide recorded checks of the follow-
retorquing is required. Retorque to the manufactur-
er's specifications if required.
(1) Check float voltage measured at the battery
(3) Check intercell, intertier, and battery ter-
minal connection resistances.
(2) Observe general appearance and cleanli-
(4) Check integrity of the battery racks.
ness of the battery, the battery rack, and battery
d. Special inspections. A special inspection
should be made whenever a battery experiences an
(3) Check battery charger output current and
abnormal condition (such as a severe discharge or
overcharge) to ensure that the battery has not been
(4) Check electrolyte levels.
damaged. This inspection should include all the
(5) Check for cracks in cells or leakage of elec-
(6) Check for any evidence of corrosion at ter-
14-19. Troubleshooting batteries.
minals, connectors, or racks.
(7) Check ambient temperature and condition
When battery system performance is questionable,
of ventilation equipment.
all the service checks required under annual inspec-
(8) Check the pilot-cell (if used) voltage, spe-
tions will need to be made. Generally, any cell which
cific gravity of flooded lead-acid pilot cells, electro-
demonstrates conditions beyond the manufacturer's
lyte temperature of flooded pilot cells, and terminal
recommended limits should be replaced. The system
temperature of valve-regulated cells.
should be rechecked to ensure all suspect cells have
b. Quarterly. In addition to the monthly items,
been removed. Where widespread premature bat-
provide recorded checks of the following data:
tery failures are encountered, the battery manufac-
(1) Check all cell voltages, specific gravities of
turer's service department should be contacted for
all flooded lead-acid cells, and all terminal tempera-
further instructions. Cell polarity reversal, failure
tures of valve-regulated batteries.
to hold charge, and inability to maintain an accept-
(2) Check total battery terminal voltage.
able specific gravity are conditions which mandate
(3) Check 10 percent of intercell connection re-
further investigation. When low or high float volt-
sistances chosen at random.
ages, temperature variations, visual observation of
(4) Clean and provide corrosion protection of
deterioration or swelling, and low open-circuit volt-
cells, terminals, and racks, and add water, as neces-
ages, all exceed the manufacturer's parameters, the
sary, to adjust electrolyte levels.
cells are probably damaged beyond repair.
Section VII-BATTERY CHARGING EQUIPMENT
14-20. Battery charging requirement.
done frequently, results in increased water use.
Overdischarging tends to raise the temperature,
A battery cannot function without a device which
which may cause permanent damage.
maintains its properly charged condition. A well-
a. Current flow. Batteries are connected to the
designed battery charger should provide the correct
balance between overcharging and undercharging
battery charger so that the two voltages oppose each
so as not to damage a battery. Additionally, a bat-
other, positive of battery to positive of battery
tery charger may have features to limit or alarm
charger and negative to negative. Battery current is
when the battery discharges to the point where the
the result of the voltage differences between the
cells approach exhaustion, or where the voltage
battery and the battery charger which flows
falls below a useful level (usually about 80 percent
through the battery's extremely low opposing resis-
of the battery's rated capacity). Overcharging, if
tance. The voltage of the battery which rises during