Quantcast Chapter 8. Managing the Operation of Electrical Distribution Systems

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8.1 OPERATIONS OVERVIEW. The electrical distribution system performs the function of
transforming and distributing electric power throughout the facility of concern. The system
includes the electrical equipment necessary to receive the electric power, transform the voltage to
the different utilization levels, and to control and distribute the electric power to the various
electrical loads. By inference from the title of this chapter, the discussion is limited to
specifically exclude the operation of generation plants that may be on site.
This chapter is divided into three main sections. The first section discusses the day-to-day
operation of the electrical distribution system, the second section discusses maintenance of the
electrical distribution system, and the third section discusses system planning studies. These
areas require more than just day-to-day personnel supervision. There must be attention
directed to operations, maintenance, and planning for the various short term and long term needs
of the electrical distribution system.
8.2 OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT. Every electrical distribution system is unique. This
manual, therefore, does not contain operating procedures detailing specific functions for a
particular distribution system. It is incumbent on the Operations Command Structure to have, in
place, sufficient operating procedures that are specific to the site and the system of concern. This
section will discuss procedures and considerations that are believed necessary and of importance
for operating personnel to safely and efficiently operate electrical distribution systems. This
section discusses the operation of an electrical system from the point of receipt of power at the
source or receiving station(s) to the points of load utilization. Additionally, this section will
discuss various areas of consideration in the operation of the electrical distribution system.
8.2.1 Operating Procedures. Each electrical distribution system should have an operating
procedures manual. For small simple systems, fed from utility services and consisting of one
main incoming service with a few radial feeders, this manual might consist of only a few pages
of simple instructions on the sequence of switching the main and feeder switching devices. More
complex systems, however, often require operating manuals consisting of hundreds of pages and
describing the details of various portions of the system. The manual, regardless of the size, must
contain up-to-date information of the equipment contained in the system. It should also reflect
the operating modes used, rather than those that might have been envisioned years previously for
a system whose configuration and capabilities has been extensively modified.
The operating procedures manual should illustrate how to energize the entire system from the
point of connection (to the power source) to the lowest utilization voltage level. It should have
sufficient detail; including drawings, figures, and tables, so that reference to vendor manuals,
equipment drawings, and other documents should not be necessary to operate the


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