Quantcast Routine Operation

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distribution system. The manual should also describe the functions of the electrical distribution
system and the individual equipment providing the operating capabilities of the various
components. This should include the continuous, short time, and emergency ratings of all
transformers, switchgear, distribution panels, motor control centers, and feeder cables. It should
relate the operating modes of the electrical distribution system under various system
configurations and describe in detail the step-by-step procedures necessary to energize the entire
system. It should detail the step-by-step procedures necessary to alter system configurations,
describe the various alarm, trouble, fault detection and equipment shutdown systems provided.
The operations manual should describe the analysis of various annunciator, alarm, protective
relay, and equipment shutdown systems, including various checklists, as necessary, to indicate
possible causes of the trouble indication. It should, additionally, contain suggested courses of
action, indication of the effect of the trouble on system operation, and the means of restoration of
service to the affected area. The operating manual should also contain, as a minimum, one-line
diagrams of the entire electrical distribution system that are up-to-date and contain each
equipment size and rating. For systems that can have multiple operating configurations, the
one-line diagrams should indicate the normal operating position of the circuit switching devices
that may be used to alter system operating configurations. This should include all bus tie
breakers and switches, circuit sectionalizing devices, incoming breakers from multiple sources, if
all sources are not energized simultaneously. This does not mean, however, that all radial feeder
breakers must have their position shown, as it is understood that they must be closed for the
system to function normally. When system equipment is replaced or modified, the drawings
must be revised to reflect the changes made; the operating manual should be revised if the change
could affect the operating modes of the system.
8.2.2 Routine Operation. The normal operation of a well designed electrical distribution
system should not involve day to day operating changes. If a generating plant is on site, the
operation of the distribution system is often integrated with the operation of the generating plant.
The generating plant system operators, therefore, also serve as operating personnel for the
electrical distribution system. If there is no generating plant on site, the maintenance personnel
of the electrical distribution system provide both maintenance and operation of the system.
A system is normally operated automatically by installed equipment. Even though the
distribution system can operate without intervention by personnel, collection of operating data by
the personnel can be beneficial to the routine operation of the system. The data can provide
information for other personnel involved in the maintenance, design, or analysis of system
performance. Routine readings should be kept of major bus operating voltages, feeder operating
currents, feeder kilowatt loads; including peak demands, feeder power factors, and energy
consumption (kilowatt-hours) for major sub-portions of the distribution system. Energy
consumption records may be required by accounting personnel to properly allocate costs of
electric power to various subunits, however, this information is also useful for analysis of system
operating factors. Use of modern electronic watt-hour meters, having advanced recording
features on internal microcomputers, allows the data to be retrieved with personal computers by


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