Quantcast Impacts of Solid Waste Generation

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dwell time, operating temperatures, and requirements for excess oxygen, carbon
monoxide, and particulates.  Air pollution control devices including cyclones,
electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers, baghouses, and wetted baffles are
used to remove particulate emissions.  Proper emphasis on solid waste sorting
should eliminate heavy metals from the incinerator feed, and thus reduce the
quantities of particulate emissions.
2.  Water quality standards are established by the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act (FWPCA) and state and local regulations.  The use of
process water in incinerators varies considerably with the design of the
plant.  Water may be used in various stages of production for cooling charging
chutes, fly ash sluicing, conveying residue, and controlling air pollution.
Many plants require from 1000 to 2000 gal of water per ton of refuse
processed; water treatment usually requires clarification and pH adjustment
because of extreme acidity (less than 2.5 in some systems) and may require
biological treatment.  Process water contains suspended solids, inorganic
materials in solution, and substantial organic material.  Flow of nonrecycled
process water to a sewage treatment plant shall be restricted to 2% to 5% of
the wastewater entering the plant.  When monitoring instrumentation indicates
excessive discharge contamination, appropriate adjustment shall be made to
lower the concentrations to acceptable levels.
3.  Vector control is established by maintaining conditions unfavorable
for the harboring, feeding, and breeding of vectors.  Housekeeping schedules
shall be established and maintained.  These schedules should provide for
cleaning the tipping and residue areas as spillage occurs, emptying the solid
waste storage area at least weekly, and routinely cleaning the remainder of
the facility.
4.  Aesthetic quality of the incinerator facility is maintained through
routine housekeeping and by regularly removing solid waste that cannot be
processed by the facility.
Ecological impacts, such as air and water pollution around old
landfills, have prompted new legislation requiring stringent standards for
construction, operation, and closure of landfill sites.  If present refuse
generation rates continue, the cost of disposal of solid wastes will jump
dramatically by the year 2000 in many parts of the country.  Eastern
metropolitan areas will suffer most as "nearby" landfills are closed. Military
installations near these crowded areas could also experience a jump in costs
for waste disposal.  The scarcity of acceptable landfill sites has prompted
municipalities and military installations to look at ways of minimizing solid
Municipal solid waste incineration is being considered and
implemented at some larger military bases.  Primary concerns with this volume
reduction technique are hydrochloric acid and particulates.  In many
instances, hazardous organic chemicals have been found in incinerator fly ash
from large-capacity units.  This problem is delaying the acceptance of
incineration at many locations.


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