! Only trace PCDD/DF was detected in boiler fly ash deposits in the second
and third passes of the boiler as the gases cooled from 14700F to 7500F,
but substantial amounts were found in the fourth pass where the gases
cooled from 7500F to 4250F.
! Copper chloride (CuCl2), together with the alkali/alkaline chlorides in
the fly ash, appears to play an important catalytic role, releasing
free chlorine in reactions which take place on carbon surfaces.
! The hydrochloric acid (HCl) is oxidized from alkali and alkaline earth
chlorides (such as KCl), also releasing chlorine to react with carbon.
! The amount of carbon in the fly ash appears to affect formation of
PCDD/DF directly by the well-known Deacon process in which HCl is
oxidized to C12 with airborne oxygen. Carbon can be reduced by good
combustion, and is probably a useful indicator for dioxins and furans.
Vogg, Metzger, and Stieglitz (1987) conclude that good combustion,
reduction of precursors such as carbon, and cleaning of the boiler surfaces are
the primary measures that can be used to minimize dioxins, and suggest that
ammonia could be used to poison the catalysts for the PCDD/DF reaction.
The following guidelines apply to incineration of military
! Solid wastes will be incinerated only in facilities specially
designed for that purpose.
! Design and operation of incinerator facilities shall be in
accordance with the EPA guidelines for Thermal Processing of Solid
Wastes (40 CFR 240).
! Design and construction of new incinerator facilities will be preceded
by an assessment of the environmental impact of that facility in
accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, Council on
Environmental Quality Regulations (EPA regulations 40 CFR 1500-1509) and
agency regulations of each Military Department.
! The collection system and operation of the incinerator shall be
planned so that toxic materials, bulky wastes, flammable or
explosive wastes, or other materials not suitable for incineration
are disposed of by other means. Wastes requiring special handling
are discussed in Section 4.4. Highly flammable or explosive
materials, such as gasoline, oil, tar roofing, photographic film,
and ordnance, shall only be incinerated in an incinerator speci-
fically designed for that purpose. Violations of this rule will
subject incinerator personnel and equipment to unacceptable risks.
Disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers is discussed in