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4.4.6.4  Packing and Storage.  Regulations require units and
installations that generate infectious waste to segregate and store the waste in
the area of generation until collected.  Distinctive, clearly marked containers
with tight-fitting lids and lined with an appropriate bag (normally red) shall
be used for most solid or semi-solid infectious waste.  Container liners are to
be tightly sealed with twist ties, rubber bands, and/or taped before leaving the
area of generation.  Puncture-resistant containers shall be used for needles,
syringes, and sharps.  Liquid wastes shall be placed in capped or tightly closed
bottles or flasks until treatment and disposal.  When storage of pathological
waste is necessary, the enclosed waste will be refrigerated until transferred
for treatment.  Infectious wastes shall be collected at regular intervals by
properly trained personnel to minimize storage time.
4.4.6.5  Transporting.  Infectious wastes are to be transported in the
original containers, or the sealed bags can be transported in larger carts.
Infectious wastes shall be manually transported to avoid rupture of the package.
Containers and carts used to transport infectious waste are to be cleaned after
each use.
4.4.6.6  Treatment.  Incineration or steam sterilization are the
methods to be used for treating infectious wastes.  The ash from incineration or
the solid waste after steam sterilization can be disposed of at a sanitary
landfill.  pathological waste that has been steam sterilized shall be subjected
to destruction (grinder) and flushed into the sanitary sewer.  Treated liquid
wastes shall also be discharged to the sewer system.  Care must be taken when
flushing waste down the sewer system to ensure that contamination of personnel
or the public does not occur.
4.4.6.7  Correct identification and segregation procedures for
infectious wastes management are important because the cost of disposal by
incineration or sterilization has been estimated at $0.32/lb compared with
$0.02/lb for normal landfill disposal.  The high cost for permitting, purchas-
ing, installation, and operation of infectious waste incinerators has caused
most hospitals to use steam sterilization or private contractors for infectious
waste treatment and disposal.  Hospital wastes differ from normal municipal
refuse in that they can contain as much as 50% disposable plastics.  Upon
incineration of PVC-containing plastics, HCl gas is produced.  Increasing
regulatory requirements on HCl and particulate emissions require that most
incinerators be equipped with an acid gas scrubber and particulate abatement
system.  The ash residue from infectious waste incinerators may also require
special disposal depending upon the content of leach able heavy metals.
4.4.7  PCB Wastes.  Polychlorinated biphenyl wastes are regulated under the
Toxic Substance Control Act.  Wastes containing or contaminated with PCBs must
be disposed of in accordance with 40 CFR 761, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
Manufacturing, processing, Distribution in Commerce, and Use prohibition, and
any state or local regulations.  The PCB disposal requirements specified in
Section 761.10 are shown in Figure 4-4A.
4.5  HAZARDOUS WASTES.  The Solid Wastes Act was replaced by the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976.  This means that solid wastes and
hazardous wastes are both regulated under RCRA.  However, hazardous wastes
regulations are more stringent and require stricter compliance.  Generally
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