DEVELOPING AN ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
1. DISCUSSION. Energy conservation is a major part of all energy management
programs, which strive to improve productivity, reduce energy expenditures,
and assure an adequate supply of energy. Although the program is composed of
many elements, metering is the key to a successful program. Figure 1-1 is an
example of the repetitious nature of the processes involved in an energy
management program. The following paragraphs describe steps needed to
implement an energy management program.
1.1 Overview. An energy manager is interested in the economics of utility
usage. Conservation alone usually does not eliminate waste--it only reduces
it. In energy management, the prime questions are: what energy is being
used; where is the energy being consumed; when is the energy being consumed
and to what extent; and how is the energy being consumed. Answering these
questions allows the energy manager to make decisions on replacement, repair,
and maintenance that will maximize energy savings. The most efficient way to
obtain the answers is through metering, which highlights improperly sized
equipment, poorly functioning equipment, system losses, and inefficient
scheduling. As an example, if a transformer is oversized for its load
requirements, energy is being wasted. Metering the transformer is an
effective means of establishing transformer load requirements.
1.2 Managerial Philosophy. In organizing the program, the manager must seek
the active support of those in charge of the installation and emphasize the
importance of metering. Program objectives must be clearly defined and
progress toward goals adequately publicized. It is extremely important to
obtain commitments from individuals responsible for implementing the program
at the working level. Team effort is also necessary to achieve goals. As the
program evolves, it may be necessary to restructure the organization or change
procedures. This should be done promptly to maintain program momentum. And
finally, adequate procedures and resources must exist to monitor and respond
to the metering information.
1.3 Initial Actions. As soon as possible, obtain or make a diagram of energy
s. stems at the installation. The diagram should identify the source and major
points of energy utilization and, if available at this stage, known energy -
losses. Diagrams can be refined as additional information becomes available.
If all energy users are identified on the diagram, a careful evaluation may
suggest optimum points for metering devices. To establish baseline values, it
will be necessary to conduct an energy audit that accounts for each type of
energy flow through the installation. Initially, the accuracy may not be
adequate to identify all energy saving opportunities but as experience and
records are amassed, this deficiency can be corrected.