**Hours-Midpeak: This is time-of-day charge used by some utilities in**

**demand or total energy billing. Midpeak-hour demand charges are often**

**considerably less than onpeak-hour demand charges. Total energy charges my**

**average 15 to 20 percent less than onpeak-hour charges. Although the schedule**

**will vary among utilities , a typical summer schedule for midpeak-hours is from**

**9:00 AM to 1:00 PM and 7:00 PM to 11:00 PM on weekdays.**

**Hours-Offpeak: This is a time-of-day charge used by some utilities in**

**demand or total energy billing. Use of electricity during offpeak-hours**
**results in lowest total energy charges and in some instances may not result in**

**a demand charge. Although schedules will vary, a typical summer offpeak-hours**

**schedule is all holidays, Saturdays, Sundays, and from the hours of 11:00 PM**

**to 9:00 AM on weekdays.**

**Hours-Onpeak: This is a time-of-day charge used by some utilities in**

**demand or total energy billing. Use of electricity during onpeak-hours**
**results in the highest charges for demand or total energy use. Although hours**

**may vary among utilities and will vary between summer and winter, a typical**

**summer schedule for onpeak-hours demand is from 1:00 PM to 7:00 PM on weekdays.**

**Kilovolt Amperes (kVA): 1,000 volt-amperes.**

**Kilowatt (kW): 1,000 watts.**

**Kilowatthour (kWh): 1,000 watthours.**

**Load Factor: Ratio of average load over a designated period of time to**

**peak load occurring in that period.**

**Load Shedding: Load shedding is shutting down electrical loads to reduce**

**total load and to lower demand.**

**1,000,000 ohms.**

**Megohm:**

**Ohm (R):**

**E**

**I = R (cd or 100% pf)**

**Ohm's Law:**

**Phase Angle: The phase angle refers to the angle created between the**

**sinusoidal voltage curve and either a lagging or leading current curve.**

**Although current may either lag or lead voltage, commercial users try to**

**ensure current is slightly lagging.**

**Power Factor: Power factor (pf) is a ratio of real power measured in**

**watts of an alternating current circuit, to apparent power measured in**

**voltamperes. Power factor is also the cosine of the phase angle between the**

**voltage and current.**

**pf = W = kW = cos( **θ **) of power triangle**

**kVA**

**VA**

**9-4**