Hours-Midpeak: This is time-of-day charge used by some utilities in
demand or total energy billing. Midpeak-hour demand charges are often
considerably less than onpeak-hour demand charges. Total energy charges my
average 15 to 20 percent less than onpeak-hour charges. Although the schedule
will vary among utilities , a typical summer schedule for midpeak-hours is from
9:00 AM to 1:00 PM and 7:00 PM to 11:00 PM on weekdays.
Hours-Offpeak: This is a time-of-day charge used by some utilities in
demand or total energy billing. Use of electricity during offpeak-hours
results in lowest total energy charges and in some instances may not result in
a demand charge. Although schedules will vary, a typical summer offpeak-hours
schedule is all holidays, Saturdays, Sundays, and from the hours of 11:00 PM
to 9:00 AM on weekdays.
Hours-Onpeak: This is a time-of-day charge used by some utilities in
demand or total energy billing. Use of electricity during onpeak-hours
results in the highest charges for demand or total energy use. Although hours
may vary among utilities and will vary between summer and winter, a typical
summer schedule for onpeak-hours demand is from 1:00 PM to 7:00 PM on weekdays.
Kilovolt Amperes (kVA): 1,000 volt-amperes.
Kilowatt (kW): 1,000 watts.
Kilowatthour (kWh): 1,000 watthours.
Load Factor: Ratio of average load over a designated period of time to
peak load occurring in that period.
Load Shedding: Load shedding is shutting down electrical loads to reduce
total load and to lower demand.
unit of resistance.
I = R (cd or 100% pf)
Phase Angle: The phase angle refers to the angle created between the
sinusoidal voltage curve and either a lagging or leading current curve.
Although current may either lag or lead voltage, commercial users try to
ensure current is slightly lagging.
Power Factor: Power factor (pf) is a ratio of real power measured in
watts of an alternating current circuit, to apparent power measured in
voltamperes. Power factor is also the cosine of the phase angle between the
voltage and current.
pf = W = kW = cos( θ ) of power triangle