Bait boxes should be placed wherever
shyness. Several factors overcame the risks of acutely
the rats are most active as determined
toxic poisons. While the anticoagulents could be lethal
by droppings and other signs (near
to warm-blooded animals, many species including
burrows, along walls, and at other
poultry, farm animals, pets, and humans would have
travel sites, etc.).
to consume large quantities over several days to cause
Rut place packs in burrows, in wall
fatalities. As well an antidote, vitamin K, was
voids, and similar protected sites. If a
site is damp, use paraffin bait blocks or
Evidence of resistence to anticoagulents and a
other water-resistant formulations. Roof
desire for quicker results drove the successful search
rats often need to be baited in areas
for single dose anticoagulents -- brodifacoum and
above ground such as attics, trees, and
bromadiolone. In recent years non-anticoagulent
rodenticides with different modes of action, such as
Rut out enough bait and check it often.
bromethalin or cholecalciferol, have been proven
[Incomplete baiting can lead to bait
effective. Zinc phosphide, used as a single dose non-
shyness and make control difficult.]
anticoagulent, is somewhat poisonious to all
Be sure to limit the rats' normal food
vertebrates. It is often used as a tracking powder and
supply or your baits may be rejected.
is licked from the fur when rodents groom themselves.
Remember that rats fear new objects at
It is also incorporated in dry baits. Zinc phosphide
first so that your baits may not be taken
should never be mixed with bare hands nor applied
for a few days or a week.
without wearing gloves.
Once bait is taken, leave the box in
Remember, rodenticides must be used very
place for some time; the rats now
carefully: they are made to kill animal species of the
consider it to be part of their normal
same class as humans.
Several general guidelines should be followed
Good bait placements can be effective
when using a poison bait. First and foremost, protect
even when placed 15 to 50 feet apart.
children, pets, wildlife, and domestic animals from
Bait placed outdoors around a
eating the bait. All rodenticides have warnings on the
commercial building can kill rats that
label telling the applicator to place the bait "in
are moving in from nearby areas.
locations not accessible to children, pets, wildlife, and
Water baits. Rats drink water daily if they can.
domestic animals, or place in tamper-proof bait
When rat water supplies are short, water baits --
boxes.' What are safe, inaccessible areas is determined
specially formulated rodenticides that are mixed with
by evaluating each case. Ask questions like these:
Is it possible for a child to reach under
water -- can be extremely effective. Several types of
a refrigerator to grab a place pack that
liquid dispensers are available. The best are custom
you hid underneath?
designed for toxic water baits, but plastic chick-founts
Could a guard dog at a warehouse find
can also be used in protected sites.
Use water baits only where no other
and eat the bait blocks you placed under
animals or children can get to them.
a loading dock?
Tracking Powders. Rats groom themselves by
If so, change your placement or put the bait inside a
tamper-proof bait box.
licking their fur. Tracking powder makes use of this
Bait boxes. A tamper-proof bait box is designed
behavior. This formulation is a rodenticide carried on
so that a child or pet cannot get to the bait inside, but
a talc or powdery clay, applied into areas where rats
the rat can. Bait trays and flimsy plastic or cardboard
live and travel. The powder sticks to the rats' feet and
stations are not tamper-proof bait boxes. Tamper-proof
fur, and is swallowed when the rats groom themselves
boxes differ in the type and quality of construction,
The major advantage to tracking powders is that it can
but they are usually metal or heavy plastic. Rat bait
kill rats even when food and water is plentiful, or if
stations are normally larger than those used for mice.
rats have become bait or trap shy.
Most designs are not considered to be truly tamper-
Apply tracking powders more heavily
proof unless they can be secured to the floor, wall, or
than an insecticide dust [but never
deeper than l/8-inch.] Best application
Ensure that bait boxes are clearly
sites are inside wall voids, around rub
labeled with a precautionary statement.
marks, along pipe and conduit runs, and
Check stations or boxes periodically to
in dry burrows (when permitted by
ensure rats are taking the bait and that
label). Apply with a hand bulb, bellows
the bait is fresh. [Rats will rarely feed
duster, or with a (properly labeled)
on bait that has spoiled.]
Module Three Chapter 2, Pg 9