18.104.22.168 Defects. The specifications shall identify unacceptable defects. ANSI, for
example, also identifies defects which, for reasons of safety, cannot be accepted: This, too, is seen
in standards which disallow all poles with "cross breaks" (see Chapter 2) that could contribute to
sudden or early breakage. The American Railroad Association and Railway Tie Association,
likewise, define allowable limits for shakes and splits in railroad ties.
A careful materials inspection and selection. process eliminates items with natural defects which
could contribute to early structural failure of the treated product. For example, certain unaccep-
table structural defects in utility poles and piles can be visually detected after the bark has been
removed and before the pole is preservatively treated, but not after treatment because the color of
the preservative masks the defects. Thus, inspection "in the white" is critical to the rejection of
defective poles or piles which could endanger personnel. The materials inspection process is
generally carried out by an independent inspection agency.
22.214.171.124 Specific Products. Wood products must conform to standard specifica-
tions that are referenced in procurement documents. These justifications are the basis for product
inspection prior to treatment for the following products:
Poles --American National Standard Specifications and Dimensions for Wood Poles,
ANSI 05.1 1979. American National Standards Institute, Inc., 1430 Broadway, New York, NY
Piles --American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM D25, Standard Specifications for
Round Timber Piles. American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia,
Railroad Ties --The Manual of Recommended Practice for Railway Engineering and
Maintenance of Right-a-Way, Chapter 3, Ties and Wood Preservation, 1986-87. American Rail-
way Engineering Association, 50F Street, N.W. Suite 7702, Washington, D.C. 20001.
Lumber and Timbers --U.S. Product Standard PS 20-70 for American Softwood Lumber.
National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Gaithersburg, MD 20899.
Structural Use Panels --Performance Standards and Policies for Structural-Use Panels,
Sept. 1986. American Plywood Association, Box 11700, Tacoma, WA 98411.
126.96.36.199 Unique DOD Needs. Federal specifications highly recommend inspection
of materials prior to treatment, i.e., "in the white."
As described earlier, many defects can go undetected after treatment due to color changes. In
view of the long-term performance expectations of treated materials and the often times costly
transportation to distant DOD installations, it is prudent to begin with the selection of a quality
product. Furthermore, railroad ties for example are sometimes ordered by species and therefore