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Piling and poles at the destination site are generally stacked so that brands, marks, tags, or quality
marks on sides or faces of piling or poles are visible or partially visible on about 35% of the piling
or poles in the top rows. The standard requires all piles to be marked but if a sufficient number of
brands, marks, tags or quality marks are visible, it can be reasonably assumed that all other pieces
are so marked.
Ties. The pertinent standard for treatment of ties is AWPA Standard C-6. Following treatment;
increment borings are extracted from a representative sample of ties, inspected for preservative
penetration and analyzed for preservative retention. The ends of the ties are also examined for
evidence of damage during treatment, such as, splits, shake, or honeycomb. Ties accepted by the
inspector are hammer-branded on the opposite end of the tie to which the acceptance mark was ap-
plied before treatment.
The hammer stamps will be similar to those used for poles (Figure 6-1). Typically the stamps will
identify the inspection agency and inspector. They may assume any geometry, i.e., round, square,
etc. Usually the hammer mark applied after treatment will also contain a "T" within it.
Therefore, if the procurement documents require that ties be marked with a hammer before, after
or both before and after treatment, spot checking can be accomplished by looking for hammer
marks on the ends. The hammer marks may not be clearly legible on every tie, but they should be
evident on at least some ties. Where this type of hammer-marking is not required, increment
borings will have to be made to determine whether the preservative penetration is adequate. If
preservative penetration appears to be inadequate, a request for additional inspections should be
made to the cognizant Applied Biologist.
Lumber, Timbers and Plywood. Spot checking of these commodities can be done by looking for
the stamp or mark on each item which verifies independent inspection. The NAVFAC Field
Guide for the Receipt and Inspection of Treated Wood Products by Installation Personnel
provides specific details.
Lumber has three classifications according to size. These are as follows:
(1) Boards which are less than 2 inches in nominal thickness and are 1 inch or more in width.
(2) Dimension lumber which is from 2 inch nominal thickness up to, but not including, 5
inches nominal thickness, and is 2 inches or more in nominal width. Dimension lumber may also
be called or classified as framing, joists, planks, rafters, studs, etc.
(3) Timbers are 5 inches or more nominal in their least dimension. Timbers are also
called beams, stringers, posts, girders, etc.
Plywood is a flat panel, comprised of layers (veneers) of wood with the wood grain in adjacent
layers usually running at right angles, glued together.


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