AFM 91-19 / TM 5-629 / NAVFAC MO-314
24 May 1989
a. One of the guides to use in comparing the
a. Identify the weeds you want to control. If
costs of herbicides is the price per pound of
in doubt, obtain assistance from a weed special-
active chemical. The costs shown in attachment
ist, the EFD or MAJCOM consultant, or other
4 were the approximate retail prices per pound
of active chemical when the publication was
b. Select the right herbicide to control these
prepared, and may be useful in planning. Actual
weeds without harm to nearby desirable plants.
costs will probably be different.
Before applying a herbicide on a military instal-
b. Usually the concentrated commercial for-
lation, make sure that the product has been
mulations are less costly to use than the more
approved by the MAJCOM or EFD pest man-
dilute concentrations. For example, 2,4-D for-
agement consultant and is included in the instal-
mulations that contain 4 pounds of acid equiva-
lation pest management plan.
lent per gallon nearly always cost less per pound
c. Read the label on each container before
of active chemical than do formulations contain-
using the contents. Heed all cautions and warn-
ing only 1 or 2 pounds of 2,4-D equivalent per
ings, especially the antidote and protective equip-
gallon. However, herbicides to be broadcast dry
ment statement for each chemical used. Anti-
in granules or pellets may require purchasing di-
dotes for each herbicide used should be printed
luted concentrations such as 4, 10, or 20 percent
and posted in mixing and office locations and in
to permit precise and uniform application.
vehicles which transport or disperse chemicals.
c. Where a formulation contains a mixture of
d. Handle herbicides that are rated extremely
herbicides, the amount of each herbicide is given
toxic (low LD50) with great care. Handle slightly
on the label and should be considered in deter-
toxic (high LD50) herbicides carefully, also. This
mining the relative value of the mixture.
applies to both oral and dermal toxicities. Avoid
skin contact with the chemicals.
2-4. Effective Herbicides. Herbicides and plant
e. Follow mixing and application directions.
growth regulators that may be useful on military
Do not mix more than will be needed. Do not
installations are listed by common name in
apply more than is recommended.
attachment 4 along with costs, commercial for-
f. Always store herbicides in original labeled
mulation, trade name, toxicities, modes of ac-
containers. Neither chemical concentrates nor
tion, and other basic information needed for
diluted sprays should be kept in unlabeled con-
tainers. Follow label instructions for disposing
a. Common weedy plants are listed in attach-
of empty pesticide containers.
ment 5, along with herbicides that give fair to
g. Remember that weather conditions, the
excellent control. Genus, species, and, in some
soil, and the growth stage of weeds affect the
instances, variety are given where response to
action of many herbicides. Hence, for best
herbicides is specific and information is avail-
results, follow label directions on when and how
able. There may be other effective herbicides
to apply the materials.
that are not included.
h. Avoid any hazard of contaminating
b. Some herbicides are effective only when
groundwater or other possible drinking water
used as either preemergence, preplanting, or
sources. Water-soluble herbicides are often more
postemergence treatments. Others are effective
readily leached through soils, but all can be
as both preemergence and postemergence treat-
carried in runoff water to streams and other
ments. Some act only through the soil, and some
only from foliage treatments. Usually the pree-
i. When applying herbicides to control aquatic
mergence treatments are effective only on germi-
weeds, remember local and seasonal variations
nating seedling plants. Some other herbicides
in water quality and chemistry affect both the
must have well developed plants at treatment
response of aquatic weeds to herbicides and the
time. It is critically important that herbicides be
chemical and physical stability of herbicides in
used according to the directions on the herbicide
water. Salinity and alkalinity of the water are
among the more variable and important charac-
teristics. Calcareous deposits on the surfaces of
Section B -- Using Herbicides
aquatic weeds greatly reduce their susceptibility
to herbicides. Water pH influences the ioniza-
2-5. A Systematic Approach. Many factors con-
tion state of many herbicides and the formation
tribute to the success or failure of herbicide
of salts and complexes that frequently are less
reactive and less soluble in water.