AFM 91-19 / TM 5-629 / NAVFAC MO-314
24 May 1989
VEGETATION CONTROL IN SEMI-IMPROVED AND UNIMPROVED GROUNDS
Section A -- Methods of Vegetation Control
Johnswort in uncultivated areas, and alligator-
weed in aquatic sites. Also, wild ducks, Tilapia,
3-1. Earth Forms and Structures. A number of
and grass carp eat aquatic vegetation. Removing
earth forms and structures can contribute to the
sources of excess nitrogen, which encourages the
case and success of weed-control practices.
growth of aquatic plants, is another means of
controlling aquatic weeds.
a. Embankments, fences, floodways, tank
farms, road and utility rights-of-way, and simi-
c. Repeated mowing tends to eliminate or
lar areas should be designed, constructed, and
reduce tall weed species, and encourages the
managed in a manner to enhance efficient vege-
dominance of more desirable low-growing vege-
tat ion management. Ditchbanks should be
tation. Mowing may need to be repeated three to
eight time each growing season to maintain
shaped to provide uniform crowns and slopes,
effective control of undesirable plants.
and a roadway should be maintained on each
bank for efficient use of mowers and spraying
machinery. Shaping ditches, grades, and back-
3-3. Recommended Herbicides:
slopes along highways to avoid steep or irregular
a. Attachments 6, 7, 8, and 9 list herbicides
contours provides similar benefits.
that are recommended for semi-improved and
b. Providing suitable livestock guards, instead
unimproved grounds. Herbicides that kill all
of gates, greatly facilitates access to the area
vegetation are listed in attachment 6; while
when using livestock grazing for weed control.
attachment 7 contains those that work best on
broadleaf weeds without killing the grasses.
Attachment 8 contains those primarily control-
3-2. Land Management Practices:
ling grasses. Herbicides for woody plants are
a. Seeding areas such as magazines, ditch-
given in attachment 9. Rates of treatment and
banks, fence lines, and rights-of-way to low-
instructions for use are abbreviated. More de-
growing grasses or other desirable plants usually
tailed information is included on labels and
provides sufficient competition to reduce the
company brochures for each of the herbicides.
weed problem greatly. It will also increase the
Follow the instructions completely. The approxi-
effectiveness and economy of grazing, mowing,
mate retail prices given in the attachments may
or using selective herbicides for vegetation con-
be useful in preliminary planning. Actual costs
trol. Maintaining desirable vegetation on these
will be somewhat different.
areas prevents or reduces wind and water ero-
b. The low-volatile esters of 2,4-D and other
sion and provides habitat for wildlife. Establish-
phenoxy herbicides must be used with caution
ing suitable stands of the desired competitive
near agricultural crops and improved grounds
vegetation is much easier on recently constructed
when drift or volatilization could damage orna-
ditchbanks, road rights-of-way, and similar ar-
mentals or desirable plants. The high-volatile
eas than on those already heavily infested with
esters should not be used in these situations. The
weeds. Frequently, weed growth can be elimi-
amine salt formulations do not volatilize, but
nated by spraying with nonpersistent herbicides,
the sprays may drift. These also should be used
such as paraquat and glyposate. Then a grass or
other revegetation mixture can be seeded almost
immediately and successfully established.
Section B -- Controlling All Vegetation
b. Controlled grazing by cattle, sheep, goats,
and geese, where feasible, often provides effec-
tive and economical means of vegetation control
3-4. Problems With Bare Soil. These problems
on ditchbanks and floodways. Only a few bio-
are not always fully appreciated.
logical agents other than livestock effectively
a. Controlling all vegetation, and thus leaving
control weeds. Examples are insects that control
the soil bare, has such great disadvantages that
Scotchbroom, gorse, puncturevine, and St.
the method should be used very sparingly and