Quantcast Renovating Turf by Tilling

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AFM 91-19 / TM 5-629 / NAVFAC MO-314
24 May 1989
grasses as bermudagrass can be killed with a
straw mulch, peat, or compost. If seed is broad-
single spraying with glyphosate at 4 lb/a under
cast on the soil surface, wet the seed and soil
favorable conditions. In most regions, however,
with sprinkle irrigation daily for 7 to 14 days
two treatments 1 to 2 months apart at 1.5 to 2
until seedling plants are visible. Then water less
lb/a are slightly more effective in controlling
frequently. Sodded areas must be irrigated sev-
eral times each day during hot and dry periods
bermudagrass and zoysiagrass. There should be
until the grass is well rooted in the soil.
enough moisture available to allow dormant
buds to develop between treatments. Under drier
c. Tillage is seldom adequate to control such
conditions, the turf can be verticut or culti-
pernicious perennial species as quackgrass, ber-
vated 7 days after treatment and the area
mudagrass, zoysiagrass, and nutsedge. When
renovating areas infested with such species, a
completed dried out to kill any remaining dor-
herbicide such as glyphosate, that has little or no
mant buds.
residual toxicity in the soil, should be used
f. Turf grasses can be seeded soon after
before tilling; or a soil fumigant should be used
treatment with glyphosate, since it leaves no
after tilling.
residues in the soil that are toxic to germinating
grass seeds. Glyphosate does not move laterally
in runoff water from the treated area, but do
4-11. Controlling Persistent Weeds With Soil
not let sprays or drift contact the foliage of
Fumigation. Soil fumigation before seeding or
desirable plants, or injury will result.
planting turf species is effective in controlling
g. Amitrole is a foliage-applied, translocated
persistent weeds if used on moist, tilled soil.
herbicide which will control most annual and
a. Metham is a fumigant used to kill germi-
some perennial grasses when applied at 3 to 4
nating seeds, rhizomes, tubers, roots, and stems
lb/a. Better control is achieved if the weeds are
of weeds in soil. The soil should be cultivated
growing vigorously in moist soil. If rain or
and kept moist for a week before applying
watering occurs within 12 hours after treatment,
metham. Then treat with 1 to 2 pints of com-
amitrole may be washed off of leaves, and
mercial formulation mixed in 2 to 5 gallons of
reduced control will result. If it does not rain
water, in a sprinkling can or sprayer, for each
within 5 to 7 days after treatment, heavy irriga-
100 ft2 of soil. The treated area should then be
tion should be applied. Ten to 14 days after
irrigated until the soil is wet as deep as control is
treatment, when the grass or weeds are white or
desired. An air-tight cover can be spread over
brown, the area should be cultivated. This can
the treated area and its edges covered with soil
be done by digging, tilling, or otherwise loosen-
to substitute for a water seal. This greatly
ing and drying the treated areas. Verticutting,
increases the effectiveness of the fumigant as a
aerating, or raking the area is not enough. If
herbicide. The area can be seeded 14 to 21 days
bermudagrass regrows, allow it to reach 2 to 3
after treatment.
inches in height and treat it again. The area
b. Methyl bromide is a RESTRICTED use
should be tilled again in 10 days, and then
that is very poisonous and may be used only by
a certified applicator. It is particularly effective
for controlling pernicious weed species having
nutlets, bulbs, corms, and lateral underground
4-10. Renovating Turf by Tilling:
stems. It also kills most seeds and disease
a. Existing turf can be removed by a sod
organisms in the soil. It does not control hard
cutter or a flat shovel in small areas, and the
seeds of clover, dichondra, or field bindweed.
area can be cultivated with rotary-tillage equip-
Apply methyl bromide at 1 lb/100 ft2 when the
ment. Many weeds are easily killed by cultivat-
soil temperature is above 60F. and under a well
ing and drying. If time is available, fallowing
sealed, air-tight cover. Because of the poisonous
the soil and cultivating at intervals of 3 to 5
nature of the gas, strict precautions must be
weeks will eliminate many of the weeds arising
followed. The cover can be removed 2 days after
from seeds and vegetative parts in the soil.
treatment, and the area can be seeded 2 days
b. Lime and fertilizer should be applied, as
needed, and the seed should be planted in a
smooth, firm seedbed. Use high quality weed-
free seed of a locally adapted turf variety. The
4-12. Controlling Weeds in New Seedings:
seed may be broadcast on the surface and raked
a. The most important steps in controlling
in, or it may be shallow drilled. It may be
weeds in new seedings is to thoroughly eradicate
advantageous to cover the surface lightly with a
the existing weeds, to use high quality, weed-free


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