AFM 91-19 / TM 5-629 / NAVFAC MO-314
24 May 1989
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
The definitions and explanations in this glos-
Biennial -- a plant that completes its lifecycle in 2
sary apply to words as they are used in this
manual. Some words have more comprehensive
Broadleaf plants -- Botanically, those classified as
meanings when used in other contexts.
dicotyledons. Morphologically those that have
broad, often compound leaves.
Absorption -- The process by which a herbicide
Brush control -- Control of woody plants such as
passes from one system into another, e.g., from
brambles, sprout clumps, shrubs, trees, and
the soil solution into a plant root cell or from
the leaf surface into the leaf cells.
Acid equivalent (ae) -- The theoretical yield of
Carrier -- A gas, liquid, or solid substance used
parent acid from the active ingredient content of
to dilute or suspend a herbicide during its
Acre-foot -- The amount of water that will cover
Chemical Name -- The name applied to a herbi-
an acre 1 foot deep.
cide active ingredient that describes its chemical
structure according to rules prescribed by the
Activate -- The process by which a surface-
American Chemical Society and published in the
applied herbicide become phytotoxic after a
rainfall. Activation results from movement of
Chemical Abstracts Indexes.
the herbicide into the soil where it can be
Chlorosis -- Absence of green color (chlorophyll)
absorbed by roots, stems, or seeds, and not
from any chemical change in the active ingredi-
Chronic toxicity -- The quality or potential of a
substance to cause injury or illness after re-
Active ingredient (ai) -- The chemical in a herbi-
peated exposure to small doses over an extended
cide formulation primarily responsible for its
period of time. (See acute toxicity.)
phytotoxicity, and which is identified as the
Common name -- An abbreviated name applied
active ingredient on the product label.
to plants or to a herbicide active ingredient.
Acute toxicity -- The quality or potential of a
Often agreed on by the American National
substance to cause injury or illness shortly after
Standards Institute and the International Organi-
exposure to a relatively large dose. (See chronic
zation for Standardization.
Compatibility -- Mixable in the formulation, or
Adjuvant -- Any substance in a herbicide formu-
in the spray tank, for application in the same
lation, or added to the spray tank, to improve
carrier without undesirably altering the charac-
herbicidal activity or application characteristics.
teristics or effects of the individual components.
Adsorption -- The process by which a herbicide
Concentration -- The amount of active ingredient
associates with a surface, e.g., a soil colloidal
or herbicide equivalent in a quantity of diluent,
expressed as percent, lb/gal, kg/1, etc.
Annual -- A plant that completes its lifecycle
Contact herbicide -- A herbicide that causes lo-
from seed to death in 1 year.
calized injury to plant tissue where contact
Aquatic weeds -- Undesirable plants that grow in
occurs and that is not appreciably translocated
Cultivar -- A variety of plant that has been
Ballast -- A strip 12 to 16 feet wide made up of
produced only under cultivation.
coarse material or gravel on a railroad roadbed.
Cultivation -- Mechanical soil disturbance after
Band treatment -- Applied to a linear restricted
the crop has been planted, and usually after
strip on or along a crop row rather than
crop emergence for the purpose of killing weeds.
continuously over the field area.
Cut-surface applications -- Treatments made to
Basal treatment -- Applied to encircle the stem of
frills or girdles that have been made with an ax
a plant above and at ground-level such that
or other tool through the bark and into the
foliage contact is minimal. A term used mostly
wood of woody plants or to freshly cut stumps.
to describe treatment of woody plants.
Berm -- A narrow band along a bank, along the
Desiccant -- Any substance or mixture of sub-
pavement on a highway, or along the ballast of
stances used to accelerate the drying of plant