AFM 91-19 / TM 5-629 / NAVFAC MO-314
24 May 1989
Detergent -- A chemical (not soap) having the
Germination -- The process of initiating growth
ability to remove soil or grime. Household
detergents can be used as surfactants in herbi-
Granular -- A dry formulation consisting of dis-
crete particles generally less than 10 cubic milli-
Diluent -- Any gas, liquid, or solid material used
meters and designed to be applied without a
to reduce the concentration of an active ingredi-
ent in a formulation.
Growth regulator -- An organic substance effec-
Directed application -- Precise application to a
tive in minute amounts for controlling or modi-
specific area or plant organ, such as to a row or
fying plant growth processes.
bed or to the leaves or stems of the plants.
Dispersible Granule -- A dry granular formula-
Herbaceous plant -- A vascular plant that does
tion which will separate or disperse to form a
not develop persistent woody tissue above
suspension when added to water.
Dormant spray -- A herbicide applied during the
Herbicide -- A chemical used to control, sup-
period after leaf-fall or death of leaves and
press, or kill plants, or to severely interrupt their
before bud-break or deciduous trees.
normal growth processes.
Herbicide Resistance -- The tolerance of a popu-
Emergence -- The event in seedling or perennial
lation of plants for a particular herbicide. Some-
growth when a shoot becomes visible by pushing
times resistance has developed because of natu-
ral selection of plants that are less susceptible to
through the soil surface.
the herbicide than the average of the species
Emulsifier -- A substance which promotes the
when exposed through several reproductive cy-
suspension of one liquid in another.
Emulsifiable concentrate (ec) -- A single phase
High volume spray -- Refers to 100 or more
liquid formulation which forms an emulsion
gallons per acre, usually made by spray gun with
when added to water.
adjustable nozzle(s) and either held by hand or
Emulsion -- One liquid suspended as minute
mounted on turret.
globules in another liquid; i.e., oil dispersed in
Incorporate -- To mix or blend a herbicide into
Epinasty -- That state in which more rapid
growth on one side of a plant organ or part
Invert emulsion -- The suspension of minute wa-
(especially the leaf) causes it to bend or curl
ter droplets in a continuous oil phase.
Extruded -- A process in which a powdered car-
Label -- The directions for using a pesticide
rier mixed with the herbicide is moistened until
approved as a result of the registration pro-
it becomes plastic and then is extruded as rods.
These rods are dried, ground, and screened to
the required size for a granular or pelleted
Lateral movement -- Movement of a herbicide
through soil, generally in a horizontal plane,
from the original site of application.
Flash point -- The lowest temperature at which a
Layby application -- Applied and incorporated
liquid gives off ignitable vapors.
with, or applied after, the last cultivation of a
Floating plant -- A free-floating or anchored
aquatic plant adapted to grow with most of its
LC50 -- The concentration of a chemical(s) in air
vegetative tissue at or above the water surface,
(inhalation toxicity) or water (aquatic toxicity)
and lowering or rising with the water level.
that will kill 50 percent of the organisms in a
specific test situation.
Flowable -- A two-phase formulation that con-
tains solid herbicide suspended in liquid and
LD50 -- The dose (quantity) of a chemical(s) cal-
which forms a suspension when added to water.
culated to be lethal to 50 percent of the organ-
Formulation -- ( 1) A herbicidal preparation sup-
isms in a specific test situation. It is expressed in
plied by a manufacturer ready for practical use.
weight of the chemical (mg) per unit of body
(2) The process, carried out by manufacturers,
weight (kg) and the toxicant may be fed (oral
of preparing herbicides for practical use.
L D50), applied to the skin (dermal LD50), or
administered in the form of vapors (inhalation
Fumigant -- A volatile chemical that can be ap-
plied on or in soil to kill seeds and plant parts.
L D50) .