AFM 91-19 / TM 5-629 / NAVFAC MO-314
24 May 1989
Leaching -- Movement of a substance in solution
Postemergence (Poe) -- ( 1) Applied after emer-
downward through soil.
gence of the specified weed or seeded plants.
Low-volatile ester -- Chemically, an ester with a
(2)-Ability to control established weeds.
heavy molecular weight, such as the butoxy-
Preemergence (pe) -- (1) Applied to the soil prior
ethanol, iso-octyl, or propylene-glycol-butyl-
to emergence of the specified weed or ornamen-
tal plants. (2) Ability to control weeds before or
soon after they emerge.
Metabolite -- A compound derived from meta-
Preplant application -- Applied before seeding or
bolic transformation of a herbicide by plants or
transplanting a crop, either as a foliar applica-
tion to control existing vegetation or as a soil
Mutagenic -- Capable of causing genetic changes.
Preplant incorporated (ppi) -- Applied and tilled
Necrosis -- Localized death of tissue, usually
into the soil before seeding or transplanting.
characterized by browning and desiccation.
Nonselective herbicide -- A herbicide that is gen-
Rate -- The amount of active ingredient or acid
erally toxic to all plants. Some selective herbi-
equivalent applied per unit area or other treat-
cides may become nonselective if used at very
ment unit. Rates of formulation per area should
not be sued in scientific publications.
Nontarget species -- Species not intentionally
Registration -- The process designated by FIFRA
treated by a pesticide.
and carried out by EPA by which a pesticide is
Noxious weed -- A weed specified by law as
legally approved for use.
being especially undesirable, troublesome, and
Residue -- That quantity of a herbicide remaining
difficult to control. Precise definition varies
in or on the soil, plant parts, animal tissues,
according to legal interpretations.
whole organisms, and surfaces.
Residual herbicide -- A herbicide that persists in
Overtop application -- Applied over the top of
the soil and injures or kills germinating weed
transplanted or growing plants such as by air-
seedlings over a relatively short period of time.
plane or a raised spray boom of ground rigs. A
(See persistent herbicide.)
broadcast or banded application above the plant
Selective herbicide -- A chemical that is more
toxic to some plant species than to others. Some
nonselective herbicides at low rates may be
Pelleted formulation -- A dry formulation con-
sisting of discrete particles, usually larger than
10 cubic millimeters, and designed to be applied
Soil injection -- Placement of the herbicide be-
without a liquid carrier.
neath the soil surface with a minimum of mixing
or stirring of the soil, as with an injection blade,
Persistent herbicide -- A herbicide that, when ap-
knife, or tine.
plied at the recommended rate, will harm sus-
ceptible plants planted in normal rotation after
Soil-layered -- Placement of the herbicide beneath
the soil surface in a continuous layer with a
harvesting the treated plants, or that interferes
minimum of mixing.
with regrowth of native vegetation in noncrop
sites for an extended period of time. (See
Soluble concentration -- A liquid formulation
that forms a solution when added to water.
Soluble powder -- A dry formulation that forms
Pesticide interaction -- The action or influence of
a solution when added to water.
one pesticide upon another, and the combined
effect of the pesticides on the pest(s) or crop
Solution -- A homogeneous or single phase mix-
ture of two or more substances.
Phytotoxic -- Injurious or lethal to plants.
Spot treatment -- A herbicide applied to a re-
stricted area(s) of a whole unit, i.e., treatment
Plant growth regulator-A substance used for
of spots or patches of weeds within a larger
controlling or modifying plant growth processes
without appreciable phytotoxic effect at the
Spray drift -- Movement of airborne spray from
Phloem -- The living tissue in plants that func-
the intended area of application.
tions primarily to transport metabolic com-
Stem-foliage application -- An application of a
pounds from the site of synthesis or storage to
herbicide to both stems and leaves of a plant,
the site of utilization.
usually a woody plant.