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BLOCK 4.  WORK CENTER.  The examples in this book do not use numbers
since it would not be obvious which crafts are involved.
Enter the job phase description as written in
BLOCK 6 of Job Phase Calculation Sheet, NAVFAC 11014/23 (4-72).  Statements
such as "accomplish work as per engr. dwg. 123456" are acceptable as long as
shop personnel know which work is theirs to accomplish (to avoid possible
trade conflicts).  Statements such as "accomplish work as required." or "for
scope of work, see Jim Jones" are unacceptable.  The P&E has to know the scope
of work to write the work authorization, so be specific with instructions to
the shop.  Don't keep shops work centers in the dark.
11.  ESTIMATING TECHNIQUES.  Reliable guides are needed to judge the
maintenance effort.  An accurate and reliable estimate by the P&E provides the
needed guide.  To obtain accurate estimates, P&Es will usually use one of two
estimating techniques -- experience or predetermined time standards. Experience
only provides information on how much time the workers actually used in the
past on similar work.  Predetermined time standards provide information on how
much time should be used.  Therefore, whenever possible, P&Es should plan and
estimate using Engineered Performance Standards (EPS), which are predetermined
time standards.  EPS times are available for about 75 percent of facility type
work.  Since management analyzes deviations between estimated and actual
requirements, the more accurate EPS are fairer to all concerned, including the
12.  ESTIMATE TYPES.  There are two types of estimates commonly used. Each
meets a particular need.
a.  Scoping Estimate.  It is probable that in some instances work for
which estimates have been requested will not be authorized or will be made
only for planning purposes; therefore, to eliminate unnecessary work for the
Planning and Estimating Branch, only scoping estimates will be made in early
project stages.  Included are inspection generated items that cannot be
accomplished in the near future and projected maintenance, or items identified
for contract performance.  Scoping estimates usually will be relatively simple
computations made on an overall basis using up-to-date unit cost information
as a guide.  As an example, a scoping estimate for exterior painting of a
frame structure may be based on the prevailing overall costs per square foot
cost for labor and material.  Unit Price Standards, NAVFAC P-716.0, should be
used for preparing scoping estimates.
b.  Final Estimate.  This is the type of estimate that is obtained when
all work operations listed on the job plan are analyzed and considered in
detail.  It should be the most accurate forecast that can be made, within a
reasonable time, of the costs, hours, and material requirements for a given
job.  It should be noted that the approved method and form of entry is by work
center in the probable sequence in which the work will be performed, with a
summary by work centers involved.  Listing by sequence of work reduces the
possibility of omitting essential steps in the work to be performed.
Reference to the probable flow of work shows the interdependence of the
various work centers during the course of the job, thereby facilitating shop
planning and scheduling.
In preparing final estimates the following factors
should be considered:


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