2.3.4 Lubricating Oils. When disposing of used lubricating oils, the
activity in question should examine the feasibility of re-refining in order
to conserve natural resources. If re-refining is not economical, the oil
should be used as a boiler fuel in order to recover the energy content.
Other methods, such as use for dust control, are no longer allowed.
Since air emissions are directly affected by the type of fuel being
burned ; local, state, or federal air pollution control agencies often
restrict the fuel composition. EPA has developed the following guidelines:
Waste oils meeting these specifications can be burned in any energy
recovery system subject to analyses and recordkeeping requirements. However,
if any specification level is exceeded, then the oil is termed "off
specification used oil fuel" and can be burned only in industrial and utility
boilers. In November 1986, EPA decided not to list waste oil as a hazardous
waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. However, EPA intends
to establish standards for waste oil and require tests for chlorine, lead,
Local and state agency requirements are often more stringent than EPA,
thus waste oil composition restrictions must be evaluated on a case by case
basis. For example, EPA does not list waste oil as a hazardous waste, yet
some states, such as California, do consider waste oil as a hazardous waste.
California requires waste oil to be managed as a hazardous waste until it has
been recycled, disposed, or transported out of state; manifests may be
required should the oil exceed certain purity standards, including a PCB
concentration level of 5 ppm, and a lead concentration level, after January
1, 1988, of 50 ppm.
Do not limit waste oil composition restrictions solely on EPA, state, or
local agency waste oil requirements; consider Occupational Health and Safety
Administration (OSHA) requirements as well. While a waste oil may not be
within the boiler ash. Handling and disposal of this ash, which may now he
considered hazardous according to OSHA, may require special provisions.
Further waste oil con-position restrictions may be required to minimize
handling and disposal problems.