Quantcast Combustion Considerations

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2.5.4 Carbon Monoxide.  CO is a product of incomplete combustion. Its
concentration in exhaust gases is usually sensitive to boiler operating
conditions.  Improper burner settings, deteriorated burner parts, and
insufficient air for combustion can cause high CO emissions.  CO is toxic,
invisible, odorless, and tasteless.
2.5.5 Hydrocarbons.  These are also indicative of incomplete combustion
and can be greatly reduced by proper boiler operation.  However,
hydrocarbons cannot be entirely eliminated; trace quantities will nearly
always be present, regardless of boiler operation.  Hydrocarbons are active
ingredients in the formation of photochemical smog, and under certain
atmospheric conditions can be transformed into other potentially more
hazardous derivatives.
2.5.6 Oxidants.  Oxidants are oxygen-bearing substances that take part
in complex chemical reactions in polluted atmospheres.  Photochemical
reactions that are intensified in the presence of sunlight involve nitrogen
oxides (NOx) and reactive organic substances (hydrocarbons and their
derivatives) as principal chemical ingredients. These react to form new
compounds like ozone and PAN (peroxyacyl nitrates), which are the major
oxidants in smog.  While ozone and PAN are not generated in the boiler, the
principal ingredients (especially NOx) are supplied by the exhaust gases.
2.6 COMBUSTION CONSIDERATIONS.  Waste oil may be burned in a variety of
energy recovery systems such as kilns, diesel engines, space heaters, or
boilers.  Boilers designed to burn No. 6 fuel oil and most No. 4 and No. 5
fuel oil fired boilers can be used to burn waste oils without major
However, boilers designed for lighter fuels may require
modifications.
modifications to insure satisfactory combustion efficiencies and to ensure
compliance with air emission regulations.  To improve combustion efficiency
and thus reduce air emissions, adjust the boiler viscosity and burner
controls and pretreat the fuel.  Segregate oils to minimize contaminants.
Gravity separate, filter, or centrifuge oil to remove water, sludge, and
solids or blend waste oil with virgin fuel oil to minimize the detrimental
affects of the waste oil.  These modifications are further discussed in
Chapter 3.
2.7 COMPARISON OF BURNING WASTE OIL VERSUS RE-REFINING. Recent rulings
require that all waste oils be turned over to the nearby fuel supply depot
to be classified as FOR for sale.  Since FOR is composed primarily of
contaminated distillate fuels, studies were conducted for the Naval
Petroleum Office to refine FOR into diesel fuel which will command a higher
price.  To determine the merit of refining waste oil, the following simple
analysis was made.
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