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3.5 FUEL ANALYSIS.  Waste oils obtained through proper segregation and
water/sediment removal as described above are primarily mixtures of
hydrocarbons.  Other than the appearance, they should have properties
similar to regular fuel oils.  The characteristic properties of a variety
of randomly selected oil samples were measured and the results are shown in
Table 3-1.  Based on historical data 'available from the Navy's waste oil
and FOR experiences, a realistic quality control standard has  been proposed
as presented in Table 3-2 (in result, MIL-F-24951 has been developed and is
included in Appendix A).  ASTM Specifications for No. 2 and No. 4 (light)
fuel oils are also included in Table 3-2 to show that waste oils are fairly
similar to these oils.  Since specifications are concerned only with ranges
and limits, fuel oils of the same grade are likely to have different
property values.  The variability of properties of waste oils is expected
to be even greater.
The properties directly affecting the safety and operations of a boiler
are discussed below (see Appendix E for the applicable ASTM test methods):
3.5.1 Gravity (or degrees API).  This is an indirect measure of the
fuel density. The carbon-to-hydrogen ratio and heating value of fuel oils
can be estimated reasonably well from their gravities as shown in
Figure 3-1.  The carbon-to-hydrogen ratio affects the combustion air
requirements (the fuel-air ratio), and the heating value affects the burner
firing rate.
Adjustment of the burner for efficient burning will,
therefore, be required when fuels of different gravities are fired.
3.5.2 Viscosity.  This is a measure of the resistance of the oil to
flow and atomize. t-or a burner to function properly, the fuel must be
within a certain viscosity range.  Since viscosity is highly temperature
dependent, this is achieved by heating the oil to the appropriate
temperature (see "Viscosity Control," Section 3.7).
3.5.3 Flashpoint.  This is the lowest temperature at which a fuel may
be ignited under specified conditions.  It is, therefore, a measure of
safety.  The minimum flashpoint for commercial grade fuel oils is 38C
(lOOoF) (see Appendix E).
40 CFR, Part 226.40
Used oil containing more than 1000 ppm total halogens is presumed to be
hazardous waste under 40 CFR, Part 266.40.  This will have a large impact
on the economics of oil burning.


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