Quantcast Appendix B Fuel and Fuel Storage

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TM 5-685/NAVFAC MO-912
APPENDIX B
FUEL AND FUEL STORAGE
B-1. Diesel fuel.
once every six months). Deterioration of stored fuel
is caused by three factors: oxidation, microorganism
Diesel fuel should comply with Federal Specifica-
contamination and corrosion.
tions W-F-800 MIL-F-16884, or specifications for
(1) Oxidation occurs directly or through cata-
JP-8. These specifications include grades DF-A,
lytic action. Oxygen from the air or fuel combines
DF-1, DF-2 or types I and II. All are suitable for
with fuel hydrocarbons causing oxidation. Result-
use under applicable temperature and service con-
ant oxidation continues as long as oxygen is
ditions. Different grades of fuel should not be
present. Metals suspended in the fuel act as cata-
mixed.
lysts. Metals can enter the fuel during refining,
a. Cleanliness. Fuel must be clean. All dirt, dust,
distribution or storage. The engine fuel system can
water, sediment, and other contaminants must be
thereby be damaged.
kept out of the fuel to prevent damage to engine fuel
(2) Microorganism contamination is caused by
injection equipment. The specified grade of clean
bacteria and fungus that exist in the bottom water.
fuel must be used to ensure long, economical engine
Waste by-products of the microorganisms form a
operation. Handling of fuel must be reduced to a
self-sustaining corrosive environment. The by-
minimum to avoid entry of contaminants. Delivery
products can form a gelatinous mass which plugs
of fuel to storage tanks and then pumping it directly
fuel lines and filters, and forms a fuel sludge
to the day tank through filters is a recommended
thereby reducing engine efficiency and possibly
procedure. Filters must be installed in all engine
damaging the engine.
fuel lines and must be cleaned as recommended by
(3) Corrosion of the storage tank does not di-
the engine manufacturer.
rectly deteriorate the fuel. Corrosion can destroy a
b. Contamination. Stored fuel and fuel storage
metal storage tank, usually at the bottom. Metals
systems must be inspected at regular intervals such
that enter the fuel act chemically to speed up oxida-
as every 90 days. Samples for detecting fuel con-
tion. The combination of microorganism growth and
taminations are as follows:
water causes oxidation.
(1) Inspect fuel filters for indication of microor-
ganism growth, rust, scale, or sediment. In a glass
B-2. Gas turbine fuel.
jar, collect a sample of diesel fuel from the bottom of
the tank. Solid contaminants will settle and collect
Fuel for gas turbines consists of natural gas or light
at the bottom of the jar. Clean the filters as directed
distillate oil such as kerosene or commercial jet
by manufacturer's instructions.
engine fuel, Jet A or Jet A-l. All are suitable for use
(2) Detect water in diesel fuel by collecting in a
under applicable temperature and service condi-
glass jar a sample of fuel from the bottom of the
tions. Most gas turbines can burn fuels used by
tank. Fuel and water will separate when the sample
diesel engines. Gas and oil fuels should not be
is allowed to settle, water will sink to the bottom of
mixed.
the jar. Fuel with water in it may appear white and
a. Cleanliness. Fuel must be clean. All dirt, dust,
cloudy when agitated.
water, sediment, and other contaminants must
be kept out of fuel to prevent damage to engine
(3) Detect gasoline or kerosene in diesel fuel by
components. Only the specified grade of clean fuel
collecting a sample (refer to b above). Fuel and con-
should be used to ensure reliable engine operation.
taminants will separate when the sample is allowed
Handling of fuel must be reduced to a minimum to
to settle, the gasoline or kerosene will float on the
avoid entry of contaminants. Refer to paragraph
fuel.
C-1a for information relating to cleanliness of liq-
(4) Detect Oil soluble soaps in diesel fuel by
uid fuel. Natural gas should be passed through sev-
having an appropriate laboratory test performed.
eral fine screen filters, to remove solid particles and
Avoid this kind of contamination, do not use galva-
water vapor, before it is fed to the gas turbine en-
nized storage tanks or piping.
(5) Prevent condensation within storage tanks
gine.
b. Contamination. Stored fuel and fuel storage
by keeping the tanks full. Tanks must be kept full
systems must be inspected at regular intervals such
during cold weather.
c. Storage. Fuel tanks used for storage must have
as every 90 days. Examples for detecting fuel con-
tamination in distillate (liquid) fuels are given in
drain valves for removal of bottom water (to be done





 


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