Quantcast Excavation

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by Section 110(a) (2) of NHPA to survey and evaluate all
archeological sites that are potentially eligible for the
National Register of Historic Places.  The surveys and
evaluations are carried out by professional archeologists and are
done in consultation with the SHPO.  The survey results are
included in the historic preservation plans to be included in the
base master plan.  When projects are planned for areas containing
archeological sites included in or eligible for the National
Register, it will first be necessary to consult the SHPO and
obtain the comments of the Advisory Council, pursuant to Section
106 of NHPA and 36 CFR 800.
From a maintenance standpoint, the most important thing to do
about archeological sites is, before digging, filling, or
building on a site, to be alert to the fact that they may be
present and to take steps to protect them when you come across
them.  Base archeological surveys should be consulted before
planning any new construction or demolition.  They should give a
good idea of whether a particular area is likely to contain
important archeological data.  However, not every potential site
can be surveyed.  If you find something in the course of your
work that looks "archeological, " stop digging and check it out.
Do not remove any object from its location on the site; protect
it in pl ace if possible.  Even objects that look sound may be
incredibly fragile because of age and weathering.  Note the
location of the site and report your discovery immediately to the
EFD (who will consult with the Secretary of the Interior, as
required by the Archeological and Historic Preservation Act of
1974, for advice on how to deal with the site) so that
arrangements can be made to evaluate and, if necessary, provide
permanent protection for the archeological resource.  The SHPO
should be kept informed of such discoveries.
6.4 EXCAVATION.  Ordinarily, "protection" means leaving the site
alone and leaving artifacts, if there are any, where they were
found (in situ).  Small sample excavations may be done to decide
how large the site is, how much and what kind of information it
is likely to contain, and exactly where the information is most
likely to be found.  Full-scale archeological excavation, where
large portions of a site are dug up and as many artifacts, or
objects, as possible are taken out, is generally not done unless
there is good reason to believe that there may be useful
information that can best be gathered in this way.
Salvage archeology, i.e., when artifacts are removed for
storage and study before a site has to be destroyed, must be left
to experts.  Usually the experts will choose not to disturb a
site, since even the most careful digging causes a certain amount
of destruction.  Most sites that have been occupied once by
humans have been occupied again and again, perhaps for different
purposes or over a period of many years.  The evidence of their
occupation is found in layers, with the oldest evidence generally
at the bottom level.  Digging, sometimes even careful excavation,


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