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MIL-HDBK-1027/3B  Typical Aiming Point.  A typical aiming point is a solid-white
circular area on the ground, the size of which varies as visibility
requirements change.  Illuminate the aiming point for night training. Trailer.  The range area should also contain suitable locations for
a radar-reflective trailer to be placed up to 10 mi (16.09 km) from the target
for use as an offset aiming point in offset-bombing exercises.
Initial Points. The initial points of aim shall be radar-reflective
pyramids, either fixed or mobile, depending on local requirements, and shall
be elevated above any vegetation or obstruction so as to be clearly visible to
pilots of approaching aircraft.  A typical initial point should be pyramid
shaped, of frame construction, painted international orange, 6 ft high
(1.83 m) with a 6 sq ft base (0.56 sq m).  (See Facility Plate No. 179-10,
Sheet 4.)
Control Tower. Locate the control tower outside the 3 mi (4.8 km)
radius of surface impact, on a line projected through the riming point, and
perpendicular to the primary run-in line.  Requirements for the control tower
shall be the same as those for the strafing range control tower.
Spotting Towers. Where remote spotting devices are not used, two
spotting towers are necessary.  Spotting towers shall meet the same
requirements as the control tower regarding elevation, visibility, weather
protection, and distance from the aiming point.  The spotting towers on
Weapons Impact Scoring Set (WISS) instrumentation ranges will contain cameras
and will be unmanned.
Equipment. Criteria for equipping the control tower and spotting
towers are given in paras. and The designer should request
appropriate Commander, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command
(COMSPAWARSYSCOM) criteria from the user for radio and telephone communication
provision to be included. Communication.  Where a remote controlled spotting device is used,
the control tower shall be equipped with two-way radio communication with
aircraft. and with telephone or radio communication with the supporting
station, and electronic equipment to record the position of bomb impacts.
When manned spotting towers are used, the control tower shall be provided with
additional equipment to provide telephone or radio communication to the
spotting towers. Range Instrumentation Equipment. The control tower may serve as the
command and control center for the range or range complex.  It may house the
equipment to integrate all electronic scoring, data management, and
communication with the air crews.  The unmanned spotting towers will contain
closed circuit television cameras remotely operated, sending signals to the
control tower.

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