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Section 5:
Function. The operational tower is used as an observation station
at aircraft gunnery, bombing, and rocket ranges for scoring and control of all
range activity.  Included under operational towers are control (or main) tower
and spotting (also called side, rake, or flank) towers.
Location. A control range operations tower and at least one
spotting tower shall be located so that accurate three-dimensional rake
information can be obtained. Refer to paras. 4.7.1 and 4.7.4 through 4.7.6
for tower locations at the various ranges. Towers shall be sited so as to
obtain an unobstructed view of the target areas and aircraft using the range.
Architectural Requirements. Refer to Facility Plate No. 179-35,
Sheet 1, for one type of control tower.  layout should be planned to take into
consideration proper egress and fire exits particularly where bunking
facilities are required (refer to MIL-HDBK-1002/1). Towers may contain range
and bearing radar equipment, photo-electric or mechanical timing devices,
target rakes or theodolites, a dive-angle "harp" to obtain data during dive-
bombing exercises remote scoring device recorders, plotting boar&, radio
equipment for two-way communications with aircraft, and telephone or radio
equipment for communications with the supporting station.  One type of manned
spotting tower is shown in Facility Plate No. 179-35, Sheet 2.  Size and
height of towers for electronic scoring systems depend primarily upon
equipment requirements.  These facilities are generally unmanned but must be
air conditioned because of the electronic equipment.  Towers should be
fireproof and provided with smoke detectors.  Requirements for security should
be determined during planning stage.  Criteria to be followed should be
Electronic Scoring Systems. The Weapons Impact Scoring Set (WISS)
is a manned video scoring set which scores the impact of air-to-ground
delivered ordnance within a 4,000-ft (1219.2 m) radius of a defined land
target under day or night conditions.  The impact results are passed to
aircrews by UHF communication and/or recorded on a computer printout.  WISS
spotting tower will house TV cameras and communication equipment for reporting
to the range control center.  Where located in remote and inaccessible areas,
the towers will be fenced for security (refer to NAVFAC DM-5.12).  Glass for
camera portholes shall be bullet-resistant to rifle ammunition.
Support Facilities. For ranges which do not use the electronic
scoring systems, facilities should be sized for personnel as described in
Table 6.
Mechanical Requirements. Refer to NAVFAC DM-3.03 and Facility Plate
No. 179-35, Sheet 3, for criteria for plumbing, heating and air conditioning

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