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(ii). New toner cartridges made with recovered materials. EPA is aware of at least
two manufacturers that produce new toner cartridges with recovered materials content. EPA
is not aware of any Federal or national specifications that preclude the use of recovered
materials in the manufacture of new toner cartridges.
c. Impact of Government procurement. Government agencies purchase, or use
appropriated Federal funds to purchase, toner cartridges. EPA does not have specific data
on the number of toner cartridges procured by government agencies, although EPA estimates
that the quantities are substantial. Thus, the Agency believes that these items are procured in
sufficient quantities to support the designation of these items.
4. Designation
In 40 CFR 247.16(c), EPA is designating toner cartridges as items that are or can be
made with recoveredmaterials. This designation includes remanufactured toner cartridges,
toner cartridge remanufacturing services, and new cartridges made with recovered materials.
D. Binders
1. Background
In the CPG, the Agency proposed designating three types of biers: chipboard,
vinyl or plastic-covered chipboard or paperboard, and cloth-covered chipboard or paperboard
(see 59 FR 18880, April 20, 1994). Chipboard binders are considered paperboard products
and are manufactured with high percentages of postconsumer recovered paper. The
chipboard or paperboard component of a cloth-covered binder is made with high percentages
of postconsumer recovered paper. In plastic-covered binders, the paperboard or chipboard
component is usually covered with vinyl or another plastic; such as polyethylene, and may
have another clear plastic coating over the vinyl or other plastic. Many binders, such as the
three-ring binders, also contain steel components which are universally made from recovered
In `the proposed CPG, EPA requested information on other types of binders made, with
recovered materials and the levels of recovered materials contained in these binders (see 59
FR 18880, April 20, 1994). The Agency received additional information on pressboard
binders. Pressboard is a higher-strength paperboard that, when used for binders, is not
covered by cloth or plastic. Two commenters explained that EPA had erred in not including
pressboard binders in the proposed designation. Pressboard, like chipboard and paperboard,
is made with high levels of postconsumer paper and paper products and is, in fact, used in
the manufacture of binders. The Agency inadvertently omitted reference to pressboard
binders in the proposed CPG designation for binders and has now included them in the final

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