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there are a number of manufacturer's that produce pressboard binders. At least one of the
manufacturers of plastic-covered binders with recovered plastic content sells its binders
through GSA's New Item Introductory Schedule. As previously discussed, the paperboard,
chipboard and pressboard used in binders for which EPA has information are made from
high percentages of postconsumer recovered paper. Several states have also issued
solicitations for plasticcovered, chipboard and pressboard binders containing recovered
According to the information available to EPA, there are no national or Federal
specifications that preclude the use of recovered paper in the manufacture of chipboard
binders. GSA's specification for binders, A-A-2549A, `Rider, Loose-Leaf (Ring)," covers
four types of binders, including cloth bound, flexible cover; cloth bound, stiff cover; plastic
bound, flexible cover; and plastic hound, stiff cover. In the specification, GSA requires its
binders to contain "a minimum of 100% waste paper, including a minimum of 30%
postconsumer recovered materials." Based on EPA's information, there are no requirements
in this specification that preclude the use of recovered materials in the plastic covering of
plastic-covered binders. However, prior to issuance of the proposed CPG, EPA spoke to one
manufacturer who stated that one test method cited in the specification, the Cold Crack test,
may restrict the use of recovered plastic in the covering for plastic-covered binders. The
Agency then requested information in the proposed CPG on the ability of vendors to meet
this specification (see 59 FR 18880, April 20, 1994). Based on the information received in
response to the request for comment as well as additional information gathered by the
Agency, EPA is recommending lower recovered materials content levels in plastic binders in
the final RMAN.
c. Impact of government procurement. Government agencies purchase, or use
appropriated Federal funds to purchase, binders. EPA does not have specific data on the
number of binders procured by government agencies, although EPA estimates that the
quantities are significant. Thus, EPA believes that binders are procured in sufficient
quantities to support the designation under RCRA section 6002.
4. Designation
In 40 CFR 247.16(d), EPA is designating binders as items that are or can be made
with recovered materials. This designation includes: (1) plastic-covered binders with
recovered plastic content; (2) chipboard and pressboard binders with postconsumer recovered
paper content; and (3) the paper component of covered binders. This designation does not
preclude a procuring agency from purchasing a binder covered with or manufactured using
another material, such as cloth. It simply requires that a procuring agency, when purchasing
the designated types of binders, purchase these items made with recovered materials.
5. Recovered Materials Content Recommendations
EPA designated paper and paper products as procurement items in 1988 at 40 CFR

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