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Analysis of Findings:  To view these projects from the right
perspective, the project POE teams looked at not just the deficiencies
identified during the POE of the project, but the whole project history.
Same of the major problem areas identified are described here.
Cost Analysis: It appears, that the single most troublesome
factor causing problems in these facilities is the
unrealistically low cost estimate made in the early stages of
these projects.
For example:
NARF, Norfolk IWT Plant:
Originally Programmed:
Spent on Original Plant:
Upgrade Cost to Date:
Total to Date:
MCLSBA, Albany, GA IWT Plant:
Planning Study Cost Estimate:
$ 253,000
PCE Cost Estimate:
Designer Estimate:
Contractor Takeoff:
Low Bid:
After eliminating key elements of the plant, such as equipment
redundancy, laboratory and office space.
When we underestimate the cost by a factor of four, we are actually
asking the A/E to design the facility for 1 1/2% of the project cost when
6% is allowed and still unrealistic. In private industry, the design cost
of an IWT plant is often 10-15% of the project cost.
One persistent technical problem, common in many Navy facilities,
needs to be singled out.  It is the degree of automation provided
in the system.  The rationale for a high degree of automation is
usually that it reduces operator requirements at the plant. As
indicated in the lessons learned part of this report, just the
opposite appears to be the case.  It was found at government and
private industry facilities, that computerized control systems
are costly, require constant attention, constant maintenance, and
constant trouble shooting.  Highly paid specialists are necessary
to maintain both control and data-acquisition systems. A very
common source of failure is the instrumentation that feeds
process data to the computer.  Therefore, total automation should
not be attempted.  What is needed is to automate (with complete
manual back-up) time-consuming tasks, such as opening and closing
valves, monitoring pH, ORP, change in pressure, operation of
chemical feed systems, etc.

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