off-site alarm monitoring with local security personnel response and
additional reaction forces. Redundancy in high security applications would
require a primary alarm station on-site with an off-site duplicate for
backup. Theoretically, this model could duplicate each reporting and
display function such that any single point failure would not inhibit the
system functioning. Safeguards to system operation include some
consideration of redundancy at the component level. These concerns include
maintenance of backup copies of system software and on-site storage of point
sensors or components critical to system operation. Duplicate pathways of
communications are also to be considered.
220.127.116.11 Control Center Configuration. The control center operator is the
focal point of command, control, and communications for facility security
operations. Distraction, disruptions, and discomforts which impact these
operations need to be controlled in order to prevent control failure. Since
the operator is responsible for monitoring and dispatch functions, which are
essential to the safeguards of the facility, it is important to maximize the
physical and visual access to the display and maintain a limit of outside
access by nonauthorized outsiders.
18.104.22.168 Human Engineering. The purpose of human engineering is to avoid
operator fatigue, to maximize operator efficiency, and to control and
eliminate consequent operator errors. The environmental conditions of the
control center, i.e., temperature, humidity, ventilation, noise, and light,
should all be at optimum. The workspace should be designed to accommodate
and enhance operator functions. Complete assessment of items the operator
must see, manipulate, and hear will indicate the requirements for the
console design. This listing will be prioritized to permit both routine and
exigent tasks to be accomplished in a logical manner. The following
suggests the comfort conditions of the workspace area and console design:
temperature (65 to 75 degrees F; humidity (30 to 70 percent); ventilation
(13 to 20 cubic feet per minute); noise 0 to 85 decibels, avoiding continued
silence); and light 20 to 100 foot-candles, avoiding glare and surface
tasks of the console/display function, controls which interact with visual
tasks, and emergency controls, anticipated sequence of operation (from left
to right and top to bottom), convenience layout according to frequency of
use, and consistent design to other systems in descending order of priority.
Refer to Military Standard Mil. Std. 1472B, Human Engineering Guide for
Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities for detailed descriptions of
console and workspace layout. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Sandia Labs
documentation is also instructive in these critical areas.
22.214.171.124 Physical Security. The control center is the single most
vulnerable point of the intrusion detection system due to the concentration
of alarm reporting and dispatch function in this area. These functions
should be protected to at least the same degree of security afforded to the
most valuable asset within the facility.
8.3 Using Existing Equipment. When upgrading the IDS for a facility,
significant savings can be realized if existing equipment can be used.