changes (e.g., screening, caulking,
Costs are higher than "low bid".
pest control devices and pesticides.
Integrated pest management was first used in
protecting agricultural crops; in recent years, it has
Pest management is site specific. The number of
proven effective in urban areas.
pests that can be seen in each target site is determined.
Setting thresholds, eliminates preventive spraying,
curtails excessive pesticide application, and encourages
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT
Evaluation, Quality Control, and Reporting
Pest management components are considered and
No gains in pest management are made without
integrated into an overall pest management plan.
evaluation. Interviews, surveys, and record
examinations are made at scheduled times. Evaluations
Monitoring and Recordkeeping
are conducted by personnel other than the pest
Inspection, continuous sampling, and use of
management technician. Formal written and verbal
survey devices that will result in accurate recorded
reports are made at scheduled intervals by technical
pest counts are emphasized. Monitoring goes on in
representatives or pest management supervisors to
identified zones of potential infestation and is
intensified in infested target sites. Nontarget areas are
Record books or logs are placed in central areas
A CASE FOR IPM: RESISTANCE
or management units. Records contain monitoring
Some insects become resistant to a pesticide, and
counts; sanitation, maintenance and personnel practice
the most complete application cannot achieve
problems; pesticide use, formulations, and amounts.
acceptable control. Of the urban pests, the house fly
Records should be accessible to pest management
and the German cockroach lead in resistance to
technicians and client supervisors.
Education, Training, and Communication
Communication is an ongoing activity. To be
How Pests Become Resistant to Pesticides
effective, pest management must be desired by the
Most pesticides are put together by combining
client. Pests should be reduced to a level acceptable to
chemical elements. Large pest populations have some
individuals whose internal systems can reduce the
the client. To achieve these goals, the pest technician
pesticide to harmless elements. When the pesticide is
interacts actively with the client. Ongoing informal
applied, these pests live. They produce some offspring
training or instructive communication between the
that can also reduce the pesticide. With each
technician and the client group's designated liaison is
generation, more and more offspring inherit the
important. Formal training is provided by pest
ability. If applicators continue to apply that pesticide,
management supervisors, technical representatives, or
more and more will be able to render the pesticide
ineffective. Once present, genes for resistance will
Designated liaisons are client onsite supervisory
always be carried by some members of the population.
personnel with whom pest management technicians
will review the record, problems, and control program
each monitoring or treatment interval. Liaisons explain
How to Recognize Resistance
the pest management program to clients such as tenants
First, eliminate reasons for failure to suppress a
or workers. Liaisons coordinate client efforts needed
pest population. If questions like these can be
for the success of the program.
answered positively, the population might be a
candidate for resistance testing:
Integrated Control Methods
Are clients doing their job by improving
All practical measures to suppress the pest
sanitation, reducing clutter, etc.?
population to a tolerable level should be considered:
Have inspections been complete?
cultural controls (e.g., regular cleaning
Have pests been correctly identified?
schedule, garbage elimination, changes
Has habitat alteration been complete?
in worker procedures)
Have pesticides been applied accurately?
physical modifications and maintenance
Mgt & Ctrl, Chapter 1, Pg 4